Resource Center For Indian Language Technology Solution

+vɪ 4

=SSɮ

ʴɹɪɺɰ{

430 il{ Eƽ lɳ l[ɺ E +ɽ M] {fұ ʴɺiɮɴɰx =P[ <DZ ˤn ʴɺM nx lɳ iɮ hxƴ =SSɮ ƨvұ n {ɹ]S +ɽ i䴽 |lɨ SS =SSɮE[ ɳ

ʴɺM

43 ʴɺM BE E` h +x iS =SSɮ VxS =SSɮɺ Vx BE ʽ[ n>x i[ix ɪ BEn [ hV i; +h =SSɮ x佨 Ehi iɮ ɮSxiɮ i ɤnɨv ɤnxiӽ ʴɺM +fi Vɺ &- n&J, [35] +xi&Eh, +i&{ɮ, |ɪ&, U&, l&, +& <0 =nɽhƴɰx + nx <DZ E, ʴɺM Eɳ iiɨ ƺEi ɤniS i + xɽ, iɮ i xɴɳ ɮ` ɤniɽ CSi +fi +JS ix =nɽh xɴɳ ɮ` +ɽi

]{ - ʴɺMǴhx ʴɺMS =SSɮS ɤnx hx Eh E`hS iS ll Yx |iIS Zɱ {ʽV il{ iS hx +xEx E +ɽ Eƽ hii, iS =SSɮ +v Eɮ ˴f Eɮ SɺɮJ i hh Eƽ J] xɽ {h i +{h +ɽ + +ɨS ɮұ hxɴɰx ɽV ɨV EƽS i iS =SSɮ Eɳ Uii i, iSɶ JS +ɪɴS EƽBE Ƥv xɽ, +h i BE >ɴhS nnS i V +Iɮ{f ʴɺM +i i +IɮS +xi ɮ =SSɰx i Ji ɪڴɮ ˴fSi +nɴ Mi ʴɺM ˤn|ɨhS x佨 ɮxi i hx iɺ ɮn hɴ q Oli {ڴS ʴɺiɮ +ɱ +ɽ ʴɺMS =SSɮ x佨 {`ҨM ɮS +ɸɪ ExS i iS lx E` {hxxS Miɱ +ɽ i䴽 JS +ɪɴS iS =SSɮɶ EƽBE Ƥv xɽ hhi Eƽ BE +l xɽ ɴɰx |Ei +Ei n hx Ei ll +ɽ i ɨV

44 ˤnS =SSɮ nx +ɽi BE JhJhi nֺɮ +Zɮi JhJhi =SSɮɺ +xֺɮ hii; +h +Zɮi =SSɮɺ +xxʺE + hii

45 ˤnS JhJhi =SSɮS hV +xֺɮS {x nx n nii, i + &-

[ + ] ˤnS {f {ɶɮ Vx{E Ehi Vx +ɱ +i i ˤnS =SSɮ {fұ Vx V Miұ + i Miұ +xxʺE Vx|ɨh i; Vɺ &- {E - {J, {S - {V, {bi - {[, |i - {i, {{ - {{ɳ, <0 V[iұ {ʽ =nɽh ƺEi nֺɮ ɮ` +ɽ iY SES i䴽S xVɮ <DZ

]{ 1 - +xֺɮJxS {ɪǪ =SSɮɺƤvx [36] iS V +xxʺE Vx|ɨh =SSɮ i, i VxS ʴE{x ʱʽhS ƺEi ɹi |Sɮ +ɽ hV {E, {S, {bi, |i, {{ ɮұ ƺEi ɤn +xG {RE, {\S, {h[i, |xi, {ɨ{ + |Eɮ ʴE{x ʱʽ ƺEi ɹi ɽv +fii {ɮi |Sɮ ɮ`i CSi +fi ɮ`Ҩv ɴ `Eh ɽv ˤnS ʱʽhS {ʮ{` +ɽ; i JxS o]x ֱɦɽ +ɽ

]{ 2 - {ɶ{Ǯ´ +xxʺEʽ i {ɮi ɮ` ɤnƺƤvx =SSɮS |Ei xɪɨ +x{ɴnE xɽ ɮ` ɤni ˤnS{f {ɶɮ Vx +ɱ +i iS =SSɮ x佨 JhJhiS, hV {fұ VxS Miұ +xxʺE|ɨhS, i + xɪɨ xɽ; iɮ Eɳ +Zɮiɽ i Vɺ &- EE[, SSh, ii[, {S <0 il{ xɴɳ ɮ` ɤnƺƤvx JhJhi =SSɮS BE xɪɨ Mi i i + &-

½{f {ɶ{Ǯ´ +xֺɮS V䴽 ½Iɮɴɮұ ˤnS {f {ɶɴVx i, i䴽 i ˤnS =SSɮ xɴɳ ɮ` ɤniɽ x佨 JhJhi hV {fұ {ɹ] VxS +xxʺE Vx|ɨh i Vɺ &- JE, [E, Mֺ, E, =S, MV, =], `, J[, M[ɳh, =nҮ, Sv, {{ɳ, Ƥ <0 xɪɨiұ ½Iɮ ɤn ɽk´S +ɽ ڳ ɤniұ ˤn֪H +Iɮ nP +x i Vɮ Eɳ Unx֮vx hV ES B + ɤn |Ei xɪɨɺ l +{ɴnE xɴ Miұ =nɽh &- +iˮS Yxn ɱɴ xE ʽS {tiұ +iˮS ɤniұ ˮ +Iɮ ڳS nP +ɽ, ɨֳ iɴɮұ ˤnS =SSɮ |Ei xɪɨɺ +{ɴnE xɽ =P[ +ɽ

+i JhJhi =SSɮS nֺɮ |Eɮ Mi

[ + ] ˤnS {f , , , , , , , Vx +ɱ +i ˤnS =SSɮ JhJhi i +h Vx {f +i Mұ ˤnS =SSɮ +xG iɱɴ niiɱɴ hV +h + i; +h , , , , , Vx {f +i niiɱɴ hV + i ɨֳS , , S , , +xG +xxʺE i + [37] hhɺ Ei xɽ =nɽh &- ƪM, ƱM&;, ƴn, ƮIh, ƶɪ, nƹ], ƺɮ, ˺ɽ

]{ 1 - {ɶxiɮ{ڴ +xֺɮS =SSɮ =nɽh{E ƪM, ƱM&;, ƴn ɤn +xG ĪM, ıM&;, Ĵn + , , S +xxʺEƺ H Exɽ ƺEii ʴE{x ʱʽii {ɮi ɮ`i nֺɮ i½ ֳS |Sɮi xɽ , , , , Vx {f +i ˤnS =SSɮ JhJhi niiɱɴ hV + +xֺɮ i iɮ Vxƺ +xְ{ +xxʺE Vx xɺɱɨֳ i {f +i Mɱ +xֺɮ ʱʽhS E{E i½ ֳ CS xɽ ˤnS JhJhi =SSɮS nֺª |EɮɺS ʴɶEx Eh +xֺɮ Y ʴii {ɮi Oli i JhJhi =SSɮS nx |Eɮƺ ʴɱ +ɽ

]{ 2 - {ɶxiɮ{ڴ ɮ`i +xxʺE =SSɮr iiɨ ƺEi ɤnƨvS x佨 +fi xɴɳ ɮ` ɤnƨv |Ei xɪɨi xnǹ] E䱪 `EhӺr +ZɮiS =SSɮ o]Һ {[i =nɽh &- Vƴ, iƴ, nƴ, iƱ, +ɨƱ, Pƺ, [ƺ, Eƺɴ, >ƺ, Eh <0 ˤnS{f , , , , Vx +ɱ䱪 xɴɳ ɮ` ɤnS =nɽh ={ɱɤv xɽi

]{ 3 - ƺEiiʽ +xxʺE i +VEɱ ƺEi ɹi ˤnS H JhJhi hV +xֺɮ =SSɮS ɴj Eʮii +xxʺE hV +Zɮi =SSɮ ɽ {ڴ ƺEii i; {ɮi i ɹ hS |Sɮix M +ɱɨֳ hV +VEɱ V ɹx =i ɹ + hii, iS Miұ +ɱɨֳ i =SSɮ +xivx {ɴɱ +ɴ i E +; ɮ`i iS ɮ |Sɮ +ɽ i ƶɪ xɽ

& +xxʺE

46 ˤnS +Zɮi =SSɮɺ +xxʺE hii =SSɮ ɮ`i Jɱұ lɳ ɽv +fi

[ + ] xɴɳ ɮ` ɤni ɤnS +xi V ˤn i, M i ڳS + +lɴ |iɪiɱ +, iS =SSɮ +xxʺE i Vɺ &- , i, Mɽ, , n, iɳ, Mְ, Z[, +, +i, Eɴ, E, E, Sɱi, E, E, Eh, `, ʴɹɪ <0

[ + ] xɴɳ ɮ` ɤni {f , , Vx +ɱ +i ˤnS +xxʺES =SSɮ i [38] Vɺ &- iƱ, +ɨƱ, Vƴ, iƴ, nƴ, [ƺ, Eh, Eƺɴ, + <0

[ < ] ʴɦHS +xESx ɨxɰ{i V ˤn +fi iS x佨 +xxʺES =SSɮ i; M Sɱʴɱ ɤn xɴɳ ɮ` + +lɴ iiɨ ˴f in¦ɴ + xɪɨ +x{ɴnE +ɽ Vɺ &- Pƺ, P[x, xiƱ, Eӽx, vS, ɪEi <0

]{ - +xESx ɨxɰ{ɴɮ V ˤn +i iS nɺlƨv Eƽ `Eh JhJhi =SSɮ BE i Vɺ &- P[S, M[S, ii, iƱ <0 =SSɮ Ev Ev ɤn Vɴɳ Vɴɳ ix + BE i

[ < ] nP ɮɴɮ ˤn +x iS{f Vɮ {ɶɮ-ɺ Vx +ɱ iɮ ˤnS =SSɮ +xxʺES i Vɺ &- EE[, {Jɰ, {S, E], `, ni, E{ <0

]{ - ƺEi-ɮ` ɤn & =SSɮEi n ʴɦH|iɪxi +xESx ɤnS M䱪 ]{i Miɱ nɺl =SSɮ xɪɨɺ +{ɴnE ƺEiv ɴjS JhJhi =SSɮ hV +xֺɮ ni i䴽 ƺEi ɤnƺ xɪɨ M xɽ =P[ +ɽ il{ Eƽ ɮ` ɤn Eƽ ƺEi ɤn ˤnS =SSƮiұ ExS ʦz ʦz +ɽi + Ei =nɽhl &- ni ( n ɤnS {iɨ ), ni ( nxi - BE ɺjS xƴ ); Ei ( {S Mɳx {[ iS ), Ei ( Exi - n, xɴɮ ); ni ( SɴhS vx ); ni ( nxi - nɪH ); <0 V[{E {ʽ ɤn ɮ` +x iiұ ˤnS =SSɮ +Zɮi hV +xxʺE +ɽ; +h nֺɮ ɤn ƺEi +x iiұ ˤnS =SSɮ JhJhi hV +xֺɮ +ɽ

Jxi n =SSɮiұ E + lɳ ʱ{i nJʴhɺ` + ƺEi ɤn ˤnS VM {fұ VxS +xxʺEx H, hV nxi, Exi, nxi + ʱʽii |Sɮ M <] +ɽ i ɴjE Zɱɺ SMɱ hV Vl nx ɤni P]ɳ hS Ʀɴ +, il =SSɮiұ Eɺ +xֺɰx ʱ{Ҩv E h +{ɱ ɹS ɦɴɺ VS +ɱɨֳ |Ei |Sɮɺ =kVx nhS M +ɽ {ɮi ƺEi ɤniұ ˤnS {f Vx V䴽 MǪ [39] Vx{E xɺi, i䴽 j ƺEi ɤni iɶS |Eɮ ʱʽhi hª ɮ` ɤni ʱ{Ҩv E nJʴhS |Sɮ +t{ +fiii +ɱ xɽ Vɺ &- ɴ += ɴȶ, +h ɴ ɤnɺ i=iҪS |iɪ Mx hɮ i=iҪS +xESx { ɴȶ ɤn Vɮ nֺª +Iɮɴɮұ ˤnS =SSɮiұ Ex ( {ʽ ɤni +xֺɮ nֺª ɤni +xxʺE ) ʦz +ɽi, iɮ ʱ{Ҩv i ɤn +t{ BES i½x ʱʽii E nJʴhɺ` Eƽ Ei Zɱɺ ɮ

[ = ] nP ɮɴɮ ˤn +x iS{f Vɮ {ɶɮ-xn Vx +ɱ, iɮ ˤnS =SSɮ EEhɺli +xxʺE EhE[ nɺli +xֺɮ EhE[ +fvE |ɴ=k +ɽ +M, MVh, Vɮ, E[{, inڳ, n, En, Ƥ

47 +xֺɮ +h +xxʺE, hVS JhJhi +Zɮi xEix =SSɮ, V ˤnS =SSɮS nx |Eɮ, iƺƤvS ɮ n vɮh xɪɨ hV +E +E `Eh ˤnS =SSɮ +xxʺE i + V ɮ Miɱ, iɴɰx +xj iS iɺ =SSɮ i xɽ + ɨV xɪ; iɮ iiƤvS xɪɨ `ʴi i xɽi

ˤnS Jx

48 +xֺɮ +xxʺE nx i½x ʱʽhS ڳ |Sɮ i +xֺɮnE +Ҵɮұ v ˤn ( - ) +h +xxʺEnE +Ҵɮұ SpES +iɱ ˤn ( - ) + nx S +ɽi {ɮi nֺɮ S |Sɮix V>x ʱ{ɦn ɽiE xɹ]S ZɱɺɮJ +ɽ ɴǶ ( i= + ) ɺɮJ ɮұ +ɶ `Eh ( - ) SS {xɰVVҴx h <] xɽ Eɪ?

ˤnS =SSɮ +h Eʴi

49 ˤnS =SSɮiұ E EʴiS n=]x ɮS ɽk´S +ɽ {f +xֺɮ ʴɺM i ƪM ½ɺ Mְi ni [40] + Un&ɺjS xɪɨ +ɽ {Ʈi +Iɮɴɮұ ˤnں ɮE] +xֺɮ ]x Un&ɺjS ɮұ xɪɨS +l x] ɨVɴɪS xɽ; +lɴ i xɪɨS SES hɴ M {ɮi +xֺɮ +h +xxʺE + ˤnS nx Mɳ Mɳ =SSɮ +x V +Iɮɴɮұ ˤnS =SSɮɺ +xֺɮ hi i, i +Iɮ P +ɱɺ +xֺɮx iɺ nPi i {ɮi P +Iɮɴɮұ ˤnS =SSɮ Eɳ +xxʺE +ɱɺ i Pں nPi i xɽ + {ɹ] Jֱɺ ɨVɱx Un&ɺjɺɽ Mɨi |{i i

V nɶ n֪xvx Zɱ EiҺ Ҩ i nɶ

Mh BE i{i BE E ־xx ˽ɶ ɮ{i

+ɪi ˽ɶ ɤniұ {ʽ ½ +Iɮɴɮ ˤn +xɽ i +Iɮɺ nPi i xɽ, S Eɮh, iɴɮұ ˤnS =SSɮ Eɳ +xxʺE +ɽ, +xֺɮ xɽ =P[ +ɽ

l ʴɺM ˤn S =SSɮɤqS ʴɴSx {ɱ +i

+ - S =SSɮ

50 + ɮS =SSɮ ɮ`i ɴj BEɮJ i xɽ +vǴ] hV Ei ˴f iE[, {h hV {֮ ˴f iS, +h Ƥ] hV Vɮ +f, + +-S =SSɮi ix n nii

+-S +vǴ] =SSɮ

51 [ + ] xɴɳ ɮ` ɤnS& +iS + +vǴ] ˴f Ei ˴f iE[ + Vɺ &- E, ɺ, Vɮ, iɮ, Pɮ, Mi, E{, =Jɳ, ֱɦ, Eɳ, SEɮ, xE, SE <0

+xSSʮi E +{hxSSʮi? +iS + Eɳ +xSSʮi ( Miɽ ) +ɽ + EƽS hh +ɽ {ɮi hh SES PiE +ɽ Eɮh E, Vɮ i +xSSʮi + iɮ, ɮ`iұ +Eɮxi hʴɱ Vhɮ ɽiE ɴ ɤn Vxxi iұ; +h iƨvұ, EnSi, CSi, {ɶSi, ʴux +h nֺɮ, Vɮ +xi + ɺiʴE +xSSʮi +, iɮ i ʱɽS E? hV + `Eh +xi Vx {ɪɨ[ES E x ʱɽɴ? + |ɪ&; ɽVE =i{z i BS, Vx iɺ Miɽ hV +xSSʮi + ] +ɽ [41] iS +ɶɪ iɺ xɺx iS ɤnVxS Eɳ nʹi +ɽ + ]i BMiɽ hV +xSSʮi + iɺ x hi n fk¤ n hV +{hxSSʮi ˴f +vǴ], Ei, +S hhS iS =q +ɱ {ʽV =P[ +ɽ

+{ɴn 1 &- Vɮ +Eɮxi ɤnS +xiIɮ V[Iɮ +ɱ ˴f ={xiIɮ xֺɮ +ɱ, iɮ +xi +-S =SSɮ {h i Vɺ &- P^, JJ, ME, =], =S, MV <0

+{ɴn 2 &- BEIɮ +Eɮxi ɤniұ +xi + {hxSSʮi +i Vɺ&-M, S, f, x, , <0

+{ɴn 3 &- ɴ iiɨ ƺEi +Eɮxi ɤniұ +xi + {hxSSʮi +i+{ɴn - ª, ½ Vɺ &- M=, ֮, κlɮ, SU& <0

|i{ɴn &- {h +Eɮxi ƺEi iiɨ ɤn ɮ`i +Mn hɺɳ hV ʴɶ {ʮSi, +Mn x佨S |Sɮi i +iұ, iɮ |Ei xɪɨɺ +xֺɰx iS +iS + +vxSSʮiS +i =n0 &- n, vx, {ֺiE, , -ɮ, nɺ, +Iɮ, Sx <0 ɤnS x佨S ɹhiұ =SSɮ {ɽ

[ + ] +Eɮxiʶɴɪ Vɺ &- E, ]E, ]V, ɴh, {ɮ, {hi, Eh, h, E{[, E, Ei, i

+xSSʮi tS ʴɺMi ʨE +-S =SSɮ +h +xi + S ɮ Miɱ =SSɮ ɽiE BES +ɽi ], ɴ, E, ɤnS ]V, ɴh, Eh, h ɤnƶ iֱx E, hV nv ], , , +Iɮiұ + ɮS =SSɮ Ei, +{h +ɽ EhɺɮJ +ɽ tIɮ jªIɮ ɤniұ +tIɮS =SSɮ ɮJ xɽ Jɮ {ɮi +tIɮS =SSɮS |ɺii |ɪ&; xɽ v uiҪIɮSS +xi ɮS =SSɮʴɹɪS ʴSɮ EiǴ +ɽ; +h i =SSɮ tIɮ jªIɮ nx ɤni +vǴ], Ei ˴f +{h +ɽ ɴǺƨi +ɽ {Ʈi jªIɮ ɤniұ uiҪIɮS +xi +-S =SSɮɺ V +{hxSSʮi ( n fk¤ n ) + hii, iS tIɮ ɤniұ +xi + ɮ [42] +xSSʮi , +h +ɽ + hii ʴSj xɴ Eɪ? BS iS Miɽ hV +xSSʮi ɤn M xɺx iS VM ix n fk¤ n hV +{hxSSʮi ˴f +vxSSʮi hVS +vǴ], Ei, iE[ + hɴɪɺ {ʽV i, + V Mɱ +Ei ] +ɽ iS ii iSS o]x |Eɮ ʺr i xɽ Eɪ?

&V;

[ < ] Sɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi ɤnƨv nֺɮ +Iɮ V[Iɮ xɺi +Eɮxi +ɱ iɮ +xi +-|ɨhS nֺª +Iɮiұ + =SSɮi +vǴ] ˴f Ei +i Vɺ &- Ei, ɴi, Jɴi, EEi, +MɳE, ɮE, EE, Mɮ, Jɮ, ʦVɴh, ɮh, PɮEڱ, ]Eڮ, EɨMɮ, +], nhM], {ɮ]Һ, `hҺ, ֱMɺ, =nɺ, Eɳi, [Ei <0 {ɮi ihE, +vǴ], CEnɮ, <0 ɤniұ uiҪIɮ V[Iɮ +ɱɨֳ iiұ + {hxSSʮi +ɽ

]{ - +{hxSSɮS ={{k S +Eiұ xɪɨƴɰx vɮ{h + hhɺ Ei xɽ E, BEɮJ M{` +ɱ nx, ix ˴f +fvE ½ +Iɮ x] =SSɮhɺ {S Mi {E M] vxi vʮ +i +Eiұ ɽiE xɪɨS SEƺ Ehɺ ֱɦ {[ B xɪɨ Eɳ SUSɮ ]ɴSx ɽhɮ xɽi

[ < ] +Eɮxiiɮ Sɮ +Iɮ ɤnƨv iɺɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi +ɱɺ iiұ +-S =SSɮ +vǴ]S i Vɺ &- ]֮[, +`[, Jɴ], x{hV, ʴɺɮ, ɨVɱ, {Pɮi, Mɴi, ֶɮE, xJ֮[, SSɴh, Eɱ, Ei, Eh, ɨVh, {`h, {[, =iɮ, Eɴɱ, +Ji, =Sɱi <0

+{ɴn 1 &- V Sɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi ɤnƨv iɺɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi +ɽ iS +xESx { +Eɮxiiɮ Vɮ +ɱ, iɮ iS iɺª +Iɮiұ +EɮS =SSɮ {h i Vɺ &- Ei-Ei, Ei-Ei, +[Sh-+[Sh, Jɴi-Jɴi +xESx ɤni iɺª +Iɮiұ +-S {h =SSɮ hS [43] Eɮh =P[S +ɽ E, ڳ BESxɨv iS =SSɮ Vɮ Ƥ]S +ɽ

+{ɴn 2 &- V Sɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi ɤn viƺ + |iɪ Mx vɱ +x iiұ iɺɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi +ɽ, iƨvұ iɺª +Iɮiұ +Eɮ +vǴ] ˴f Ei xɺi Vɺ &- =M[-=M[, +J[-+J[, +[Jɳ-+[Jɳ <0 +{ɴnS Eɮh ɮұ +{ɴnS EɮhɺɮJS +ɽ, Y SEƺ ɨVS

+{ɴn 3 &- Sɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxiiɮ +xEhɴSE ɤn |Ei xɪɨɺ +{ɴnE +ɽi Vɺ &- P[P[, {]{], E[E[ <0 `EhS iɺª +Iɮiұ +-S =SSɮ +vǴ] ˴f iE[ xɺhS Eɮh + E, +Eɮxi ɤnS V +Eɮxi ڳ ɤn P[P[, {]{], E[E[ <0 iƨv iɺª +Iɮiұ +-S =SSɮ +{h xɺx =] +fvES +ɽ

+{ɴn 4 &- tIɮ ڳ ɤnƺ +Eɮxiiɮ tIɮ |iɪ Mx vɱ䱪 Sɮ +Iɮ ɤni Vɮ iɺɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi + iɮ iiұ +- {hxSSʮi +i Vɺ &- i-E, i-E, [-E, ]-ɰ, ɱ-{h <0

[ = ] V Sɮ +Iɮ ɤni ]S nx +Iɮ nP +x nֺɮ +Eɮxi +i, iƨvұ nֺªS +iS + +vǴ]S =SSɮ Vi Vɺ &- [E[, `h>, ʶEhɮ, xɮE[, <ɱɺ, ɱiɺ,

[ > ] {S +Iɮ i{Iƽ ` ɤn ɽv vi +ii iƨv iS ڳ +ɪɴiұ +vxSSʮi + ɽiE iɺS +vxSSʮi ɽi ɮұ Eƽ Sɮ +Iɮ ɤnS +ɱExx ɨVS =nɽh &- i-E, ]-ɰ, E[-E[, ɳ-ɳi, {lɮ-], +ɳ-Mi, J-Ji, x-ʨɳ>, {ɪɱ-ɮ, i-SɱJ, M-Vɮ, ɽ-Pɮ, {ɪ-{], n-Pɮ <0

+-S Ƥ] +h {h =SSɮ

52 +{hxSSʮi hV +vǴ], Ei ˴f iE[ =SSɮ + ɤnS +i +ɱ +i Mұ +Iɮiұ +-S =SSɮ [44] Ƥ] hV Vɮ +f + i ; +I nP + hii; i SES +ɽ Eɮh iS Eho] ˴f Uxn&ɺjo] nPi Mhx Eʮi ɴɪS xɽ =P[ +ɽ =n0 &- Pɮ, Mi, x <0 iұ P, M, +Iɮiұ + =SSɮi Ƥ] i

53 +vǴ] Ƥ] nx =SSɮʶɴɪ +-S V ɺiʴE iS, {h =SSɮ i ɮ BE ɤni +-S ix =SSɮ ii -vұ + +vǴ], -vұ Ƥ], +h -vұ {h +ɽ =P[ +ɽ

54 ɮƨv H + ɮSS +vǴ] ˴f Ei =SSɮ i i|ɨh {h +-S {h =SSɮʶɴɪ Vɺ iS, +E 52-v Miɱ, +hJ BE Ƥ] +lɴ EƽӺ +f ˴f ihɱ =SSɮ i, i|ɨh BE - {h, iS, Vɴ; +h nֺɮ - Ƥ], Vұ, Vɮɺ +f Vɺ &- i, iE, ʽi, ʴɹ, ], `, Mh, i, V], ], h, =M, i, B], +, E, E, V <0 ɤniұ {ʽ +Iɮiұ ɮ Vɴ{I =SSɮi Vɮɺ +f hV Ƥ] +ɽi iS {h iS ˴f Vɴ =SSɮ {ɽɴɪS +ɱɺ ii ʴɦH|iɪ ɴɴ, hV i Vɴ =SSɮ ʴɦHªxi {i nii iɱ, ʽix, Mhɺ, hɺ, =MS iɶ, +i, E, VS <0 ʴɦHªxi {ƨv {ʽ +Iɮiұ ɮ ڳ ɤnS iS +Iɮiұ iS ɮS xx E Ƥ hV iS =SSɮ +ɽ ` V] ƺ ʴɦH|iɪ Mɱ hV iS +t +Iɮ ֳS ½ i i䴽 nP < nP > S =SSɮS ɺiʴE ɰ{ xn, j, h, >, V>, ɺ <0 nP Eɮxi ɤni SMɱ o]Һ {[i

55 + ɮS Ƥ] =SSɮ Vɺ +Eɮxi ɤnS ={xi ( +Eɮxi ) +Iɮɨv o]Һ {[i, iS|ɨh [45] Ƥ] =SSɮ +Eɮxi ɤnS ={xi +Iɮi +fi M䱪 +Eiұ =nɽhƴɰx M] Ex <DZS

]{ - Ƥ] =SSɮS ڳ |iE ɮS Ƥ] ˴f Vɮɺ +f + V nֺɮ =SSɮ ɮ`i ni, i Eɳ +xi +-S +vǴ] =SSɮ{ɺx =i{z Zɱ +ɽ S Eɮh =P[S +ɽ E +xiIɮiұ +-S +vǴ] =SSɮ Zɱx i +Iɮiұ VxS {fұ +vɮ ( ɮ ) V xx E ( Ei ) i, i xx iS Mұ +Iɮiұ ɮɺ +xiIɮiұ ]{]i VxS +f Mi ɨֳ ={xiIɮiұ ɮ Vɮɺ +f Vi, hVS iS Vɮɺ Ƥ] =SSɮ i, {ɮi +-S +vǴ] =SSɮ ƺEi ɹi ֳS xɺɱɨֳ hV VE[ iE[ iS =SSɮ {h iS ˴f Vɴ i +ɱɨֳ iS ˴f |Eɮ Eɳ ɮ`S

+vǴ] =SSɮS {ʮhɨ

56 ɤnS +xiIɮʶɴɪ V V +Iɮiұ + +vǴ] =SSɮhi i, i i +IɮS Mұ +Iɮiұ ɮɴɮ +Pi i {fS V[Iɮx V |EɮS +Pi Mұ +Iɮɴɮ i iS |EɮS +Pi +ɽ ]V, E{[, ViE, <ɱɺ, =M[, ]֮[, xJ֮[, [Ei, ɴi <0 ɤnƨv nֺª ˴f iɺª +Iɮi V +vǴ] =SSɮ Vhɮ + +ɽ, iS M Mұ hV {ʽ ˴f nֺª +Iɮɴɮ, {f Vh Eƽ V[Iɮ +ɱ +ɽ + +Pi i; hV i ɤn Vɴɳ Vɴɳ ]V, E{[, ViE, <ɺ, =M[, ][ɮ, xJb, [Ei, 䱴i + =SSɮhi ii + hhɺ Ei xɽ

ɺjҪ Oliұ ɹ

ɮұ +Ei V ɹ {ɮ +ɽ i +E[ұ ɮ` EhS ɹx Vɮɶ ʦz +ɽ l Vɱ +vǴ], Ei ˴f iE[ + ] +ɽ iɱ i +xSSʮi

( Miɽ ) hii, +h l Vɱ Ƥ], Vɮɺ +f + ] +ɽ iɱ i nP ( in ) + hii ɹS E ɮ ɽk´S xɽ + Eqx {ֹEƺ ]hɺɮJ +ɽ {ɮi ɹS +|ɪVE{hɨֳ ˴f lɱx ˴f +x I nx +JҺ +fxɹ] {ʮhɨ P[x ii, + xɮxɮɳ ɺjiұ +xE =nɽh n>x ʺr Eʮi <DZ MɴɪS ii{ɪ [46] Eɨ xɪ ɹ x佨 ʴɴIi +l iiii nJʴhɮ +ɴ iS M ɺiʴE +lS ɽk´ E i Eɨ xɪ ˴f Vɺiɽ i Eɨ xɪ +vǴ], iE[ =SSɮɺ EhEx +xSSʮi + V ] +ɽ, i E SES +ɽ +h i i&S E ʴɺMi +ɽi S ɮ nMnx +ɱS +ɽ l +fiɶɪH ˴f ɺiʴE +lS Vұ ʴEɺ n +ɽ hV ɺiʴE V Jɮ +l +ɽ, i{I ɹS +l +fvE i S n nP ɤniɽ +ɽ Ƥ], Vɮɺ +f ɱ nP hɴ E xɽ |ɪ&; +ɽ S =kɮ xɹvlES n {ʽV Eɮh E, Ƥ] hV Vɮɺ Ƥ, ɱ nP hV Ƥ ]ɨֳS ɮ`Ҩv ={xi +Iɮiұ ½ < = ƺEi ɤniɽ nP ʱɽɴ + ] xPɱ i; i|ɨh rJxɨv +r vɮh ɴɪS i {h i v lƤɱ +ɽ iɮ iS |ɪ&; {x {fM ={κli ɴɪS hx iS vɱɺ S |iEɮ Eh ɮ

Ƥ] hV nP xɴ Ƥ] =SSɮ, ½ < ½ = SS i + xɽ iɮ i ɴ ɮS i ɮұ =r]xi +ɱS +ɽ +xi + +vǴ] =SSɮhi i; iɨֳ ={xi +Iɮiұ ɮ Ƥ] i; hx =SSɮS o]x ½ nP ɮS ½ Ƥ] ½ +h nP Ƥ] nP + nx nx |Eɮ ii H + ɮS +hJ BE +vǴ] + =SSɮ +ɽ +h iɨֳS |iE ɮS {h Vɴ =SSɮʶɴɪ iS Ƥ] nֺɮ =SSɮ ɮ`i =nɺ +ɱ +ɽ E-E-E3 E[S +ɮhiұ ix =Eɮ +xG ½, nP {i ɮS =SSɮS |ɨh nJʴii, ƺEi EhS i {ڴ MiɱS +ɽ {i hV ɮ nP =SSɮ ɮ` xɽ, M] ɴǨx +ɽ iS|ɨh ½, nP {i S +xG BE, nx ix j ɨVii ɴǨx +ɽ i䴽 Ƥ] hV nP + Vɮ ], iɮ Ƥ] ½S nx j ɨVɱ {ʽVi +h Ƥ] nPS ix ɨVɱ {ʽVi ɤniұ P-vɱ +-S =SSɮ ViE Ƥ] i, iiES i ɤniұ -vɱ B-S Ƥi =P[ +ɽ i䴽 P-vұ +- nP ]x iS Vɶ nx j vɮɴ Miұ, hV iS Vɴ{I Vұ Ƥ Vɶ BE jS +ɽ + hɴ M, i|ɨh i ɤniұ -S Vұ Ƥ iiES hV BE j <DZ hV i ɤniұ -S =SSɮS ڳS nx Vұ ƤS BE ʨɳx ix j E{ɴ Miұ |ɨh i ɤniұ -S =SSɮɺ {i hɴ [ ] M, +h {i =SSɮ ɮ`i xɽ ɴǺƨi i iV ` hx i ɤniұ -S =SSɮS Vұ Ƥ BE j xɽ xδǴn ʺr i xɽ Eɪ? +h Vɮ ʺr +ɽ, iɮ Pɮ ɤniұ P-S =SSɮSɽ nx j E{i hɮ xɽi; hVS iɺ nP hi hɮ xɽ =P[ +ɽ ɨֳS Oli i =SSɮɺ Ƥ] ˴f Vɮɺ +f + ] +ɽ ɴɰx + hi <DZ E, ʽi, ʶɴ, Mh, ʴɹ rJxS |ɪ&;S nʴɴn +ɨ ij{h E +ɽ; i VYɺx {ɽɴ l H =SSɮS |ɪ&; +ɽ ɨֳ iɺ l lɳ nh M xɽ

ɮPiS |ɪ&;

=SSɮS Ƥvx +hJ BE xɴx ={κli Zɱ䱪 |ɪ&;S >{ EɴɪS +ɽ ( aɽ ) +i + BE xɴx i |Sʱi > {ɽi +ɽ xɴx i ɴǺ SES +ɽ + Ehӽ hhɮ xɽ {ɮi ɮPiS ( aɽ ) |ɪ&;S ɺjҪ o] Vɺ {{kE ʴSɮ ɴɪɺ {ʽV, iɺ +t{ Zɱ xɺɱɨֳ iɺƤvS xɪɨɽ V =nɺ +ɱ +ɽi, i +|ɪVE nʹi +ɽi i xɪɨS ʴɺiɮ {ɮIh Eh{ڴ tS ɺiʴE ɰ{ |lɨ ʴɶn E {ʽV i ɰ{ x] ɨVɱ hV xx, n, ɨ

ɮPi +h +vǴ] + |lɨ + |ɪ&; =i{z i E, ƺEi ɹi Vɮ V ˴f ɮPi ( aɽ ) xɽ iɮ i ɮ`i Ev E`x +ɱ? |ɪ&;S BiɽʺE o] ɨvxEɮE =kɮ nhS l =q xɽ i Eɨ l ( aɽ ) |ɪ&;S =n¦ɴi xɽ +h ɮ`Ҩv i |ɪ&; V =i{z Zɱ +ɽ, i Eɳ + ɮS +vǴ] =SSɮ{ɺx +ɱ +ɽ BE M] vxi `ʴɱ hV |ɪ&;S ɴ =M[ ZɱS hx ɨVɴ

+vǴ] +-S {ڴIɮɴɮ uʴv {ʮhɨ ɮS =SSɮɺƤvx V ʴɴSx ɮ E +ɽ, iɴɰx + Ex <DZ E, ɮ`Ҩv +vǴ] =SSɮ H + ɮSS i +h iɨֳS +{hxSSʮi + V +Iɮi +i, iS Mɱ [48] +Iɮiұ ɮS =SSɮɴɮ iS {ʮhɨ P[i ɤnxiS + +{hxSSʮi +ɱɺ ={xi +Iɮiұ ɮS Ƥ] =SSɮ i; +h +{hxSSʮi + ɤnS vɱ Ehiɽ +Iɮi +ɱɺ i +IɮS Mɱ +Iɮɺ ˴f i Mɱ +Iɮiұ ɮɺ {f V[Iɮ +ɱ|ɨh vCE ɺi +{hxSSʮi + ɤnS +ɮƦ ˴f +ɮƦS +Iɮi EvS i xɽ +i +{hxSSʮi +-S Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ ˴f iiұ ɮɴɮ + xɮxɮɳ nx {ʮhɨ E ɴ, |ɪ&;S =kɮ + &- ɤniұ +xiS +-S +{hxSSɮ i, iɨֳ VxS {fұ ɮvɮ [ɳx i Vx ]{] Mi hV i MS ɦʴEi +{ɱ {`ҨMS ɮɺ =SSɮi Vh Eɪ {Eb Mi iɨֳ i ɮ ihɱ V>x Vɮɺ Ƥ] i, {ڴS Mhi +ɱ +ɽ {ɮi +{hxSSʮi + ɤnS v +ɱɺ iS Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ xɮɳS {ʮhɨ i S Eɮhɽ {ɹ]S +ɽ Jɴi ɤnɨv J +h i nx +Iɮiұ + +{hxSSʮi +ɽ; iɮ iS Mɱ +h +IɮS =SSɮɴɮ +-S +vǴ] =SSɮS BES {ʮhɨ i xɽ +Iɮ =SSɮi Ƥ] i +h +Iɮɺ {f V[Iɮ +ɱ|ɨh =SSɮi vCE ɺi ˴f iɴɮ +Pi i; Jɴi ɤnS =SSɮE[ I I nx vxi <DZ

I ɺi o]Һ {[ɴ hx I nE jS ˴f ʴEɺE ESS ={ɪM Eʮii ɽɪx I ɺiS +Eɮ ` ni iɮ ` +Eɮ ڳ ɺiS xɺx i Eɳ ={ɪMi +hɱ䱪 jx ˴f ʴEɺE ESx =i{z hɮ ɨ +ɽ ʴɺɰ xɪ + i䴽 <ɮ vxi `x ɮұ I =SSɮɺ Ejɨ lڱ { +hx iVE[ {ɽ hV +{hxSSʮi + +Mn +xSSʮi +ɽ + Ihɦɮ ɨV iɺ Zɱɺ Jɴi ɤn Ji + ʱ{i =SSɮiɽ n hV +Iɮ{f J V[Iɮ |iI n +h +Iɮ{f H BES Vx n ɨֳ +Iɮɺ {f V[IɮS vCE ɺi; {ɮi S{f BES Vx +ɱɨֳ iɺ vCE ɺhS Eɮh xɽ i H iS {fұ M[ VxS +fx Ƥi Ji Ejɨ lڱ ɰ{S Jɮ xx i-vұ +-S =SSɮɺ Eh +xSSʮi hi +ɱ iɮ xE {h M ix iS o]x J-vұ +-S =SSɮɺɽ +xSSʮi x hi +{hxSSʮi E hɴ BE MfS +ɽ + ii{ɪ [49] +IɮS =SSɮɴɮ ʦz ʦz Eɪ hS Eɮh nx ʦz ʦz EɪȺ Ƥh ˴f +f Vh, +h vCE ˴f +Pi, + +ɨ nx {=lC xƴ n +ɽi nx EɪȺ hV V ˴f ɮPi BES xƴ n>x iɺƤvS xɪɨ Mh Zɱɺ i + iұ &-

ɮPiS xɪɨ

[ + ] ɤnxiS + +{hxSSʮi +ɱɺ ={xiIɮɴɮ V i; hV ix ={xiIɮS =SSɮ Ƥ] i Vɺ &- Pɮ, nɮ <0

[ + ɤnS vɦM Vɮ Ehiɽ +Iɮi +{hxSSʮi + +ɱ, iɮ iS Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ V i, hV ix Mұ +Iɮɺ Vh Eƽ {f V[Iɮ +ɱ|ɨh vCE ɺi Vɺ &- Jɴi, ɴi, <0

]{ - nx `EhS V ɺiʴE xɮxɮɳ |EɮS +ɽ {ʽɺ Ƥ] V hɴ nֺªɺ Pi V hɴ +lɴ ʽɺ ih nֺªɺ vCE + hh ɮ

[ < ] {f V[Iɮ +ɱ +i Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ ɽv V i; hV iɺ vCE ɺi tS ʴɺiɮ ʴɴSx {f hɮ +ɽ

( < ) ɮұ ix xɪɨi Miɱ䱪 lɳʶɴɪ +xj ɴ +IɮS {h, iS ˴f Vɴ =SSɮ i

V ˴f ɮPi ( aɽ ) ʴɹɪS ɮ`i ij |Eh EɴɪSS +ɱ iɮ i +i ʴɹɪɺƤvS ªS ƤɱSE ʴɴSxi V vɮh xɪɨ Sʴhi +ɱ +ɽi, iS l[Ci {ɮIh E

ɮPiS +xH xɪɨ

xɪɨ 1 - nx +Iɮ ɤni {ʽ +Iɮɴɮ V +i, M i +Iɮ ½ + nP +

{ɮIh - xɪɨ Eƽ +Eɮxi tIɮ ɤnƺS M +ɽ {ɮi Vɮ, P, Jֳ, {ɳ, <0 ɤniұ +tIɮS =SSɮi Eƽ ʴɶ +ɽ + ni xɽ

xɪɨ 2 - jªIɮ ɤni ɽv {ʽ +Iɮɴɮ V {[i; {ɮi {ʽ +Iɮ ½ nֺɮ nP +i, i䴽 vɱ +Iɮɴɮ V {[i [50]

{ʮIh - jªIɮ ɤnS +` S +ɽi, iƺ Un&ɺji Mh hii i S EhS Olix =iɰx Pi

1

Eɳ, Sɳi, E{

xMh

5

E, SE, xM

Mh

2

ɮɴ, xɴ, [ɴ

Mh

6

xMɮ, ɮ, Mɴ

Mh

3

Eɺɮ, xɮ, ɮ

iMh

7

E, SE, xE

Mh

4

E, ]V, i]E

Mh

8

ɮi, {ɮi, E]ɴ

VMh

+` S{E ˴f Mh{E Sɴl {Sɴ hV MhS MhS Siұ ɤnƨv vɱ +Iɮiұ + +{hxSSʮi +ɽ; hx {ʽ +Iɮɴɮ V +ɽ {ʽ iɺª, iɴ +`, hV xMh, iMh, Mh VMh , Siұ ɤni +xi +{hxSSʮi + +ɽ, hx nֺªɴɮ V +ɽ; +h nֺª ɽɴ, hV Mh Mh , Siұ ɤni ʴɶ V E`S xɽ, + ɺiκli +ɽ; hV +`{E nx Si {ʽ +Iɮɴɮ V +ɽ hx xɪɨS |lɨ Miұ ɽv ɤn l +ɽ

+i nֺª ME[ {ɽ {ʽ +Iɮ ½ nֺɮ nP + |Eɮ ɽ +`, hV Mh VMh, nx Si +ɽ i䴽 xɪɨ|ɨh nx Siұ ɤni nֺª +Iɮɴɮ V +ɴ {ɮi iɺ V H +` hV VMhiұ Si +ɽ; Eɮh ii +xi + +x i +vǴ] +ɽ ɽɴ hV Mhi +xi ˴f v +vǴ] + xɽ; i䴽 i Siұ ɤni E`S V xɽ ʶɴɪ {ʽ, iɺª iɴ, hV xMh, iMh Mh, ix Si +xi +vǴ] + +ɽ; hx iƨv nֺª +Iɮɴɮ V +ɽ BS, xɪɨS {ʽ Miұ ɽv ɤn xɮlE +ɽ; +h nֺª Mi +fiɴ{i +{i nx n +ɽi

xɪɨ 3 - Sɮ +Iɮ ɤni ɽv {ʽ iɺª +Iɮɴɮ V +i; {ɮi nֺɮ +Iɮ nP +i, i䴽 nֺª +Iɮɴɮ V {[i

{ɮIh - nֺɮ Sɴl nx +Iɮ +Eɮxi +x i nvұ + +vǴ] =SSɮ Vi +i i䴽 xɪɨS {ڴǦM i ɤni M {[i {ɮi ; hx {ڴǦMiұ [51] ɽv ɤn l nֺɮ +Iɮ nP +ɱ hV iVɴɮ V i, nֺɮ M +{h SESɽ +ɽ Sɮ +Iɮ ɤniұ iɺɮ +Iɮ +Eɮxi +x iiұ + +vǴ] +ɱ iɮ nֺª +Iɮɴɮ V i, M i +Iɮ

½ + nP + Vɺ &- xɱVɮ, ʮEɨE, ]֮[, x{hV <0 =nɽh |Ei +vɪi {ڴ +ɱS +ɽi ֱJi, Eɴɪ xɪɨS Ejªx n =nɽh ɡ SES +ɽi ֱJi ɤni +xiS + +vǴ] +ɱɨֳ iɺª +Iɮɴɮ V +ɽ, nֺªɴɮ xɽS; +h Eɴɪ ɤni +vǴ] + xɽS, hx ii V E`S xɽ, nx ɤni nֺª +Iɮɴɮ V +ɽ + V n M=lƺ ɺ Zɱ, iS Eɮh {h nPi VS Eɮh EvS > Ei xɽ

xɪɨ 4 - ɨɺƨv ڳ +ɪɴiұ ɤnƨvɱ V ɽiEx iɺS ɽi

{ɮIh - xɪɨ ɴǺ Jɮ +ɽ j ڳ ɤniұ V E` +ɽ x] ɨVɱ {ʽV

xɪɨ 5 - ɮ`i ½ɺɮxi ɤnS xɽi

{ɮIh - ɮ`i +Eɮxi ɤn E[ xɴ, iɮ Vɮ +i + xɪɨ Pɱhɮx E Piɱ S ɽx ɽx +ɶSɪ ]i EnSi +Eɮxiʶɴɪ + hhS iS =q + i|ɨh i䴽 iiɨ ƺEi ɤn V Ex ES, hV xɴɳ ɮ`, ɤn +-ʶɴɪ x Sɱɱ iɮ xɪɨ iVS +h, {ɮi, ˴fi, ii Mti +h Ex, Ex + {ڴEɱɴSE hV >xEnxi {ti +xE +fii i䴽 |Ei xɪɨS vɰx fʴɱ䱪 Vɮ +ɴ=kªƴɮ +ɴ=kª Ef iɮ i Eɳ ]E>S , =P[ +ɽ

xɪɨ 6 - +ɮƦS + EvS +xSSʮi xɺi

{ɮIh - ɮ`i EhiS ɮ E` +xSSʮi xɺi +xSSʮi hV +{hxSSʮi + ɨVɱ, iɮ xɪɨ Jɮ +ɽ

xɪɨ 7 - +xi + nni +xSSʮi +i ( +xiIɮ V[Iɮ +ɱɺ il xɪɨ M xɽ ) [52]

{ɮIh - |lɨ +xSSʮi ɤn +lx +ɽ iS VM +{hxSSʮi + ] {ʽV xɪɨɺ Eƺi BE +{ɴn Miɱ +ɽ {ɮi iɺ +hJ +{ɴn +ɽi i {ڴ +E 51- v Miɱ +ɽi, il {ɽɴ

xɪɨ 8 - nP +Iɮ +ɮƦ, v ˴f ], E` +, i EvS +xSSʮi xɺi

{ɮIh - xɪɨS =q x] ɨVi xɽ +Eɮxiʶɴɪ H + ɮ if Ev Ev +i Ev Ev v +{hxSSʮi +i; {ɮi +ɮƦ ir Evӽ +{hxSSʮi xɺi

( xɨɪ 6 {ɽ ); +h EhiS +Iɮ ˴f EhiS ɮ E`, Evӽ +xSSʮi xɺi i䴽 nP +IɮɤqS xɪɨ Mhi Eɪ iɱɤ?

xɪɨ 9 - V䴽 nx +Iɮ nP +ii, i䴽 i{E BE =SSɮɨv Vɮɺ +J[ i

{ɮIh - xɪɨS x] +l Mɴ hx ii |lɨ Eƽ ɤnS ɮ Pɱh +ɴɶE +ɽ xɽ iɮ EƽS +l Mi xɽ nx +Iɮ nP +ii hV Eɪ? Ehi nx +Iɮ? i䴽 M{`S +lS ɤn +vɾi ɨVɱ {ʽVi iɺS i{E BE <0 l Ehi, hV {ʽ E nֺɮ, {ɹ] xɽ i䴽 BE hV {ʽ + ɽv +l +ɴ + ]i BS, xɪɨS ɹ Ei +{h n +ɽ ! {h vɮh E䱪 iɮ xɪɨS ={{k Mi xɽ ɮ, Mɮ, i, i, ɮɴ

+xi nP ɮS {h =SSɮ EvS i xɽ

{ɮIh - xɪɨS Eɮh +Mɨ +x iS iiɽ E`S |iɪɺ i xɽ ʴ[, Jɮ, ]E, Mh, =M[, vɮh <0 tIɮ, jªIɮ, SiIɮ ˴f {SIɮ, ]iұ i nPǺɮxi ɤn P>x {ɽ; |ɺii xɪɨ Eɳ ɨɨڱE ni

xɪɨ 11 - +xi +-S {`ҨM nP ɮ h ɮ, +lɴ <]ix nP ɮ i

{ɮIh - xɪɨ Vɮ nMv +ɽ hV nP ɮ i E, V M ɮ i iɺ nP hɴ {E EjªS xi Ehi [53] +l +ɽ {ɹ] i xɽ ʶɴɪ xɪɨi ɹS ɺiκli x Mi nP ɮ h ɮ ɤnx ɹ vx PɱhS ˴f xɴx ɳh ɴhS |ɪix E +ɽ + ni ʶɴ, i, M= <0 iiɨ ƺEi ɤn ɮ`i Ҵ, i, Mɽ + ʱɽɴ + EjªS +ɶɪ +ɽ Eɪ? + iɮ ʴSjS ɨVɴɪS ɮ i M +ɽ + Vɮ P>x Sɱɱ iɮ , Pɮ, Eɳ <0 ɤnS ] Eɪ? iұ +xi +-S {`ҨM ½ ɮ xɽ Eɪ? +lɴ iɺɽ nP Ex i ɤn ɳ, Pɮ Eɳ + ʱɽɴɪS =SSɮɴɪS E Eɪ? i䴽 xnx |EɮS ɤnƺƤvx iɮ |Ei xɪɨ J] ˴f +fxɹ] +ɽ, + ]S {ʽV =P[ +ɽ

xɪɨ 12 - +xi +Iɮ BE iɮ nP +ɱ {ʽV, xɽ iɮ +xSSʮi +Eɮxi {ʽV

{ɮIh - |lɨ +xSSʮi ɤnS VM +{hxSSʮi + {ʽV nֺɮ, +M, E`, E, JJ, ME <0 +E 51-v ˴f ɮұ xɪɨ 7-S {ɮIhi xnǹ] E +{ɴn Ii Piɱ {ʽVi; i䴽 =kɮM Jɮ ` +h {ڴǦMɨv iiɨ ƺEi ɤnʶɴɪ +xj + ɤnS ɮ Piɱ {ʽV =P[ +ɽ {h iiCx Mi xɽ i ɮ Piɱ ˴f +vɾi +ɽ + ɨVɱ iɮ xɪɨ +x{ɴnE i xɽ +h, {ɮi, ii <0 xɪɨ 6-S {ɮIhi xnǹ] E l[ ɤn iɺ +{ɴnE +ɽi =P[ +ɽ ʶɴɪ ɤv xɪɨɺ ɮS +{ɴn +ɽi +EɮxiS ɮ n +{ɴn [ iɮ , f, S <0 BEIɮ +Eɮxi ɤnS ] Eɪ?

ɮPiSSS ={ɺƽɮ

VS Ƥvx nhi +ɱ䱪 xɪɨS {ɮIh l {ɱ {ɮIhɴɰx +h {ڴ n䱪 ʴɹɪS ll ʴɴSxɴɰx Eɪ xɹ{z i i ɹEʴnx `ɴ +ɨS i ƺEii ɮ`iɽ {ɹ]{h E`S o]Һ {[i xɽ H +xi +-S +vǴ] =SSɮx Mɱ hV ={xi +IɮS Ƥ], vɱ +-S +vǴ] =SSɮx iS MS +IɮS {f V[Iɮ +ɱɺɮJ ˴fSi Pi =SSɮ i hV V hɴ ʶɴɪ ɮ`i +h V Eƽ +{ƶx +ɽ + ] +i Sɱ i Eɳ +vǴ] +-S Ƥvx V[IɮS Ƥvx i +ɱɨֳ iS xɪɨ ɮ Miɱ|ɨh +Mn v ɮ +ɽi [54]

S, V, Z S =SSɮ

57 S, V, Z S ڳ =SSɮ iɱɴ {ɮi ɮ`i iS +hJ nxiiɱɴ =SSɮ i, {ڴ lxʴSɮi ( +E 24, ]{ 2 ) MiɱS +ɽ hS nxiiɱɴ =SSɮ +i iS ɮ PS [ɴE[ BE ˤn nhS E` {ʮ{` +ɽ, + nn hii, {ɮi {ʮ{` ɴǺ xɽӺ Zɱ +ɽ + hhɺ Ei xɽ

58 S, V, Z S iɱɴ nxiiɱɴ =SSɮS ɴǺvɮh xɪɨ nh nP]S +ɽ iiɱ ii ƤvS V vɮh M] nii i + &-

[ + ] r ƺEi ɤni S, V, Z S iɱɴ =SSɮ i Vɺ &- Sp, SG, Vx, Vi, ZZɴi <0

[ + ] S, V, Z S{f <, < ɮ +ɱ +i, ˴f Vx {f >x S iSɶ ƪM Zɱ +i, xɴɳ ɮ` ɤniɽ S, V, Z S iɱɴ =SSɮ i =nɽh &- SEh, SJɱ, SҮ, ViE, ZVh, Zh, iS, SS, V, V, Z, iS, Vɱ, Z <0 {ɮi iS, Z, Z <0 `Eh nxiiɱɴS ni

[ < ] ɤnS +ɮƦ S, V, Z +Iɮ +ɱ +i, hV ɤnS +ɮƦ S, V, Z h BEɮxi +ɱ +i, iS =SSɮ iɱɴ i =n0 &- S, S, Vh, Z <0

+{ɴn 1 &- V-x +ɮƦ hª Eƽ ɤni V S =SSɮ iɱɴ nxiiɱɴ + nx |EɮS +fi ii iɱɴS |Sɮ nɴɮ nxiiɱɴS EEhi ɮ =n0&- Vl, V䴽, Vf <0

+{ɴn 2 &- BEIɮ BEɮxi ɤni V S =SSɮ nni nxiiɱɴ i

Vɺ &- V ( V S + ), V

[ < ] S, Z ɹ`S |iɪS EEhɺli niiɱɴ +h nɺli CSi iɱɴ =SSɮ i =n0 &- iS +<Ǥ{, Z E{[ <0 `EhS iS, Z ɤniұ nֺª[55]S Eƽ nɺlS =SSɮE[ I xVɮ n hV ɮұ E E

=SSɮʴɹɪE +xH xɪɨ & S, V, Z S =SSɮ

xɪɨi xnǹ] Zɱ䱪 lɳʶɴɪ +xj S, V, Z S =SSɮ E i, ɤq xɪɨ ni i xɽi i =SSɮ +xj |iE `Eh Eɳ |SɮxS ɨVɴɪS Eƽ Ehx +hJ BE nx xɪɨ n +ɽi, +h +ɶSɪS M] E, MVEƺɮJ {E ɺjҪ o]S vE ]EEɮx Ehx iS Eɳ +v{h Eɮ E +ɽ {ɮi V xɪɨƺ ɮS +{ɴn +ii +h i +{ɴnS n nh jɺnɪE i i xɪɨ ES? ɺiʴE ] +i iS ɺjҪ Oli ɨɴ Eh hV ɺjҪ ʴɴSxS ˴f ɺjɮSxS +Yx |E] Eh =nɽhl &- EƽES i S, V, Z ɤnS v ˴f +xi +i iiұ S, V, Z S =SSɮ nxiiɱɴ i iS xɪɨ ix n䱪 Vɮ, ]S, +ɨS, Z ɤni Jɮ ni {ɮi {SSɳҺ, =S, Vx, =V[, iV <0 ɤnS ] Eɪ? ʶɴɪ i B +i n +h EEh {ɮi ʴE{ nxiiɱɴ =SSɮ i + BE xɪɨ nֺɮ Eh nii i䴽 nx xɪɨS ɺi xɽ {E {ʽ +{h ˴f nֺɮ SES +ɱ {ʽV i䴽, +{ɱ{f V =nɽh +ɱ, ifS =nɽhƴɰx V xɪɨ nɱ, iS +x{ɴnE ɨVx =iɴҳ{h `ɨ `Ex nhi +ɱ +ɴ + ]i ڳ tS ʴSɮ ʴɺi=i o]x Ehi +ɱ xɽ |EɮS =iɴɳ{hx E䱪 xɪɨƺ xɪɶɺji +ɱExiE ʴMɨx ll xƴ +ɽ +{ɱ Ei +ɱExi V M] ɴjE ni, i i +ɱExS ɪnɽ䮽 iɶS +ɽ, + ɨVx V ʴMɨx Ehi i hV V ɨx ʺrxi l{i Ehi i, iɺ +ɱExiE ʴMɨx + hii ɺiʴE ɺjɶr ʴMɨx xɴ

+ɱEiE ʴMɨxS |ɺii ʴɹɪɺƤvS +hJ BE ffi =nɽh {ɽ S, V, Z {f x M ʶɴɪ Ex ES ) +i nxiiɱɴ =SSɮ i =n0 &- Sfɴ, SE, Sڱ, Sɱ, S, V, VM, SM <0 xɪɨi n䱪 =nɽhƴɰx xɪɨ ɴǺ i +ɽ, + Ei o]S SEɺ ] iɮ ii xɴɱ xɽ {ɮi iS M=lS +ɱExS ɪn fʴɱ +h Sɮ, SMɳ, S[, VM, Vi, Sɮ ( J[56]SE ), SɳҺ, V`, Vn, S{, +SƤ, +Sɮ, +V, ES, EVڹ, ESɳ, MS[, MV, V, <0 + +xE ɤn xVɮ {b, iɮ iS iɱS +{ɱ ESi o]S +ɶSɪ ]ʶɴɪ hɮ xɽ BS, +ɱ xɪɨ ɺiʴE xɨɪS xɴi, hx iƺ ɺjҪ Oli lɮ ʨɳi Eɨ xɪ

[-S =SSɮ

nnS |i{nx [ hS nx =SSɮ MhS nnS{ɺx |Pi {[ +ɽ nn hii &- h ɤnS +ɮƦ +i iS =SSɮ r [-ɮJ i, {ɮi ɤnS v +lɴ ] +ɱ iɮ, r [ =SSɮi ViE VҦ ]ɳɴɮ nɤɴ Mi iiE x nɤi vS ˴fSi {ɺɮɴ Mi; [M +h [[ +lɴ [ɦ[ n ɤni [-S =SSɮ ɮJ xɽ =SSɮhʴɹɪ EiEƺ ƶɪ +ɽ {ɮi ɮ` ɤni ] vɱ [-S =SSɮi +h +t [-S =SSɮi ˴fSi +i i ƶɪ xɽ M[[, [[ i +h [M, [E i [-S =SSɮhi Eƽ +ɽ, ʴɹɪ ɱ iɮ +MnS ƶɪ ]i xɽ xɪɨɺ nn BE +{ɴn Mii; i + &- ] uk [ +ɱ, +lɴ ={xi h Vɮ +xxʺE +ɱ, iɮ [-S r =SSɮi Eƽ {[i xɽ Vɺ &- +bb, [ <0

{ nnx [ hS + ] +ɽ M[ x xֺi [-S + ] +ɽ E޹hɶɺj S{ɳhE +{ɱ Ehɴɮұ xɤvi ʱʽii &- [EɮSɽ =SSɮ nx |EɮS +ɽ [, [M, [, J[ V x =SSɮƤvx Mvi {iE +ɽ, M iS i Eɪ + i + Jx [ VxS + ɡ ] +ɽ + κlii |lɨ ES =SSɮ nx |Eɮ i x&ƶɪ ɨVi xɽ [ hS hV [ VxS + +l ni, +Eɮxi [ +IɮS xɴ; +h nnS =nɽhƴɰx iS +l ni; +h +h Jx iɮ ɡ [ VxS + {ɹ] ]S +ɽ, i䴽 iS +l Eɰx Sɱɴ ɮ

nnS iS {ɮIh +i nnx +EɮxiS [[ + BES =nɽh Piɱ +ɽ S{ɳhEx J[, E[ + {ɮi VҤ J ƺ Vɮ Vں `ʴɱ iɮ nn, M[, S{ɳhE ʴux [57] jɪS V tɺƤvx BEi ni, i tɴɮ ʴɰr {I BE SEɮ Efh v[SS + {ֹE|ɨh |ɺii JEɺɽ ]i +ɽ il{ iɺ EhSҽ [ɪn xɺi iɨֳ i JEɺ Mx {f fEʱi +ɽ, |ɺii lɳS iS +ʴɹEh iS ɺjҪ ʴɴSx Ehɺ |ɴ=k Ei +ɽ

[M, [E, [ڱ, [, [h <0 ɤniұ +t +IɮS =SSɮ, P[, M[, M[, E[, {[ <0 ɤniұ +xiIɮS =SSɮ i +ɨƺ iɮ ʪiESiɽ E ni xɽ {ɮi [Eh, [Sɨɳh <0 ɤniұ +t [-S =SSɮ M[[, [[ <0 ɤniұ vɱ +xi [-S =SSɮ i nnnEx Miɱ E ll +ɽ [Eh ɤniұ [ =SSʮix ViE VҦ ]ɳɴɮ nɤɴ Mi iiE M[[ ɤniұ [ =SSʮix x nɤi vS ˴fSi {ɺɮɴ Mi +Iɮ& Jɮ +ɽ iɺS ] uk [ +ɱ +lɴ ={xi h Vɮ +xxʺE +ɱ iɮ [-S r =SSɮi Eƽ {[i xɽ + V BE +{ɴn nnx Miɱ +ɽ iɨv +xxʺE S VM xֺɮ + v E hV +{ɴn Jɮ `i E[, n[, [ ɤniұ ˤnS =SSɮ EEhɺl|ɨh H +xxʺE E䱪ɺ +xi [-S =SSɮ nnS xɪɨ|ɨh i; {ɮi nɺl|ɨh xֺɮ E䱪ɺ xɪɨɺ +{ɴnE i; I xɮIhi vxi <DZ S M], V ɤni ˤnS =SSɮ Eɳ xֺɮ +i i ɤniұ [-S =SSɮ xɪɨɺ {ɹ]{h +{ɴnE +ɽ, ɴɰx ɨV n[, J[, M[, [{ <0 =nɽhƨv ˤnS =SSɮ xֺɮ +ɽ, iS {fұ [-S =SSɮ r i {ɹ]S +ɽ [{ =nɽhɴɰx BE M] Si i + &- nnx +{ɴn V Miɱ +ɽ i +xi [-S ƤvxS Miɱ {ɮi [{ =nɽhɴɰx vɱ [-S =SSɮS xɨɪɽ xɮ{ɴn xɽ + +f ʶɴɪ, [E, {[i, J[E <0 ɤniұɽ vɱ [-S =SSɮ nnnE Vɺ hii iɺ i xɽ, iɮ r i xɪɨ +{ɴn S n {ɮIhɴɰx + nx <DZ E, +{ɴni +xxʺES VM +xֺɮ ɤn {ʽV; +h xɪɨɨv +Eɮxi [-S, hV [ VxS xɴ iɮ [ +IɮS, + ] {ʽV +h +{ɴnɨv ɮ Miɱ vɮh Ex +xi [-S =SSɮS xɪɨ Vɮ Jɮ ] iɮ vɱ [-S =SSɮS xɪɨ nnnE hii i|ɨh xɮ{ɴnE xɽ [{, [, [E [58]

[-ɮJ uʴv =SSɮ +xʽ VxS i i֨ hi i Jɮ {ɮi [-S nx =SSɮ ii nnS ʴvxɺ i֨S EhiS Ei xɽ iS xɪɨ +{ɴn ɺjҪo] ViC iiii{h Mɴɪɺ {ʽV i, iiC iii{h i Miɱ xɽ E J ʴvxɺ Eƽ i֨S Ei ni xɽ ɨֳ iS xɪɨi +{ɴni H M vɮh E hV Zɱ + Vɮ Eh ɮұ ʴɴSx Sx hɱ iɮ iS hh{E ɮS M +ɨƺ x +ɽ Eɮh E, [, [, b, [, [, [, [ <0 ʶɴɪ, nx |EɮS [-S =SSɮ Vɮ xɱ iɮ iɺƤvS Mɳ xɪɨ +{ɴn nhS Vɰ xɽ + {E ɺjҪ o]Һ hɴ Mi Eɮh =P[S +ɽ E, V nx |EɮS =SSɮ Miɱ i Eɳ [-SS i + xɺx ɴ vx +Eɮxi VxS i + ʴɺi=i +ɱExi +fi ], ]Ex, f, Efh, ɮ, ɮE ]E, fɳ, [E +h +S oι] +fvE ʴɺi=i E hV + nx <DZ E, |iE VxS +Eɮxi =SSɮi |ɨh +ɮƦ +i l[ɺ E {[i

=SSɮn +vǴ] +-ֳ + Vɮ +ɽ iɮ iɺƤvS xɪɨ nhS Vɰ xɽ +-ʶɴɪ {ڴ + MiɱS +ɽ E, H + ɮS, iS Vɴ =SSɮʶɴɪ ɮ`Ҩv BE +vǴ], Ei ˴f +{h =SSɮ i +-S V +vǴ] =SSɮ i iS MxS i V VxS +i +i i VxS =SSɮi l[ɺ E {[h ɽVE +ɽ BS, +-S +vǴ] =SSɮS V ʴɺiɮ xɪɨ ɮ n +ɽi iƨvS xɪɨS +xiɦǴ i + I {E ɺjҪ n=]Һ EɴSx ɽhɮ xɽ

={ɺƽɮ ɮƶ, nnnES xɪɨ +{ɴn nx Eƽ +ƶ +fiɴ{i, +{h +i +ɽi; +h ii V +{ i +ɽ i [-|ɨhS [59] nxiɮ iiS xɪɨS +xiɦǴ i +ɱɨֳ ( +E 51-+ {ɽ ) i Mɳ MhS Vɰ xɽ ɴ M] ɮұ ʴɺi=i ʴɴSxɴɰx SES {h{h vxi iұ + +ɶ +ɽ

ƪH VxS =SSɮ

+JҺ ƪH VxS =SSɮɺƤvS ʴɶ M] Mx =SSɮvɪ {ʴi

59 ƪH VxS =SSɮ ii ʨɳɱ䱪 VxS =SSɮS ʨɱɡx i; {h i ix ƪH VxS M +Iɮ +ɱɺ iɺ {fұ ƪHS =SSɮS BE |EɮS vCE ɺi ɨֳS ƪM ½ɺ Mְi ni + xɪɨ ` +ɽ xɪɨ ƺEi ɹi +Mn xɮ{ɴnE +ɽ {ɮi xɴɳ ɮ` ɹi ɺ +xE +{ɴn +fii

xɮPi ƪkf & -ʨθi ƪkf

60 xɴɳ ɮ` ɤni Jɱұ lɳ ƪH +IɮS =SSɮS Mɱ +Iɮɺ vCE ɺi xɽ

[ + ] +ɨ, i֨ ɤni iS ʴɦHªxi {iɽ ƪH VxS =SSɮS Mɱ +Iɮɺ ʴE{x +Pi ɺi M] Eʴii {ɹ] i Eɮh E, V䴽 +Pi ɺi xɽ i䴽 Mұ ½ +Iɮ ½S ɽi

{fұ =nɽh {ɽ &-

VE x v Mְɪni{i E

i{j vxi Siɨh EhiiE ɽ {i

i ɽ֦ɹh iVxɪ Eɴ˺ ڹh

i xVɦڹh xVE{-o] ɱ {h

E޹hlʺ x Eh nʴɱ Eɴ Eh

Eɴ +fi ih ɽi i={i Ʀɹh +xiEʴ

ni M x Ehʽ Ev Eɨ Eʴɱ {i

|lDZ + Ekɨ, n< [x i֮Mɨ +xiEʴ

[ + ] {x, i½ [60]

[ < ] V䴽, i䴽, E䴽, xɴ, + <0 ɤniұ ƪHIɮS Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ ʴE{x +Pi i il{ ɤn ʶɴɪ Ex ES ɤni Pi =SSɮS ɮ |Sʱi +x iS ʶɹ] ɨVɱ Vi

Eɪ =Si iVɱ v x Ehʺʽ +i

+fɨx i{&Iɪ E E ɮ i {i

[ < ] -|iɪxi vi ɤnƨv +x V[IɮS =SSɮS Mɱ +Iɮɺ vCE ɺi xɽ =n0 &- ɶ, {䶪, [, =Sɱ, ֨, P֨, i, =, +[i, JɨC, =`, ɺɱ, Pɤª Pɤª <0

]{ - =t ɤniұ |lɨIɮ xɮPiS +ɽ

+`, i ( <ʺ{E ˴f {k Jiұ ʴʶɹ] {k ), {`

[ = ] ʴɦHE ɶɤnME ɤnS ɨxɰ{ɨv Vl Vl V[Iɮ i, il il i V[IɮS =SSɮS Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ +Pi i xɽ =n0 &- P[ɺ, iɳS, nֺªɺ, iɺªɺ, ªS, E`x, Eªi, xɴɺ ( ɤnS Sil ), Vxɺ, hS, ]ɺ, {[i, C, M[E[x, ɳɴɮ, VxJɱ

]{ 1 - ª +h ɴɰx BE M] vxi `ɴɪS; i + &- V[x hª ƪMS Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ =SSɮɨv +Pi i xɺ iɮ i ƪH Vx ª + ʱʽii; +h i + iɮ 1 + ʱʽii =nɽh &- EiªS, iªɺ <0 {ɮi Eɪ, vɪ, {ɪi <0

]{ 2 - {hɺ +h {hɺ xɪɨ iiɨ ƺEi ɤn ɮ`i Sɱix iƺɽ Mi Vɺ &- xtƺ, Jƺ, iƺ ( i ɤnS Sil ) <0 {h, ɴh <0 ɤnS ʴɦHS { {hɺ, ɴhi +, hV V[IɮS Mұ +Iɮ xɮPi ɽxS ii {ɮi {h, ɴh <0 V[Iɮxi ɤnS {i - {hɺ, ɴhi - V[IɮS Mɱ +Iɮɺ +Pi ɺi iɮ { |Ei xɪɨɺ +{ɴnE xɽi Eɮh =P[S +ɽ E, {hɺ ( {h ɤnS Sil ), ɴhi ( ɴh ɤnS {iɨ ) <0 ɤniұ V[IɮS Mɱ Pi +Iɮ, {h ɴh [61] ڳ ɤniS Pi +ɽ; +h ɮ n xɪɨ Eɳ ɨxɰ{ɨv hª V[IɮɺƤvS +ɽ ʴɺɮi Eɨ xɪ

[ > ] |i{nES +xESxiɽ hɮ V[Iɮ Mɱ +Iɮɺ =SSɮɨv vCE ni xɽ =n0 &- i ( i ɤnS +xESx ), xt, {], ʨª, i, hɱ, ɱ <0

+{ɴn &- [ = ] +h [ > ] nx xɪɨƺ BE +{ɴn +ɽ V䴽 ɨxɰ{ ˴f +xESx ƨvұ V[Iɮiɱ +xi Vx +i, i䴽 i V[IɮS Mұ +Iɮɴɮ +Pi i Vɺ &- ˴Sɺ, [´ɺ, ɺx, {ɺ, iɴǺ, MɳS, Vɳ, V, + <0

]{ - +{ɴnɺ BE |i{ɴn ni ɤn Sɱix ( Mɴɺ, Mɴx <0 ) iS ɨxɰ{i V V[Iɮ i, ii ikʴE o] Vx +xi +ɽ i䴽 i V[IɮS +{ɴnS xɪɨ|ɨh Mɱ +Iɮɴɮ +Pi ɴɪɺ {ʽV, {h i i xɽ i䴽 iɺ ɺiʴE |i{ɴn hV +{ɴnS +{ɴn + ] {ʽV {ɮi VxS {f V +Iɮ V[ɴɪS i iS MS ʱʽhS V +YxɨڱE Sɱ ɮ`i {[ +ɽ hx {ڴ Miɱ ( +E 40 [>] - ]{ {ɽ ) i Sɱ|ɨh MɴS ɨxɰ{iұ V[IɮS +i ʱ{Ҩv Vx Jɺ xɽ; +h =SSɮ ʱ{|ɨhS EhS |Sɮ ni +ɱɨֳ MɴS ɨxɰ{iұ V[Iɮɺ |i{ɴn hhS Vɰ xɽ

[ ] viS +Jiɰ{ƨvr Ev Ev V V[Iɮ i iS Mɱ +Iɮ =SSɮi xɮPiS ɽi =n0 &- Ei, i, ʱʽi, {[, Eɴ, +ɴ, , i <0

+{ɴn 1 &- Jɱ, Jɱ, Jɱ <0 J viS iEɳS {i +Pi +ɽ

+{ɴn 2 &- Vx Eʴiiұ iEɳS Eƽ {ƨv V[IɮS Mұ +Iɮ Pi +i Vɺ &- vʴzɱ, ʺzɱ, MVzɱ <0

+{ɴn 3 &- n, xɴ {iұ ={xiIɮɺ +xi V[IɮS ʴE{x vCE ɺi [62]

Sx &- |Eh BE M] Ii `hɺɮJ +ɽ i + &- V[IɮɨMұ +Iɮ V䴽 i& nP +i, i䴽 {fұ V[IɮS iɺ vCE ɺɱ Eɪ x ɺɱ Eɪ, ii Un&ɺj o] ɮ E {[i xɽ {ɮi V[IɮS Mұ +Iɮ i& ½ +i {fұ V[IɮS vCCx ½ɺ Uxn&ɺji Mְi i; +h {fұ V[IɮS Mұ ½ɺ vCE ɺi xɺɱ iɮ i ½ɺ Mְi i xɽ q EʴiS o]x ɮ ɽk´S +ɽ

ƪH VxS =SSɮ & CMi

[ = ] V[Iɮx +ɮƦ hɮ ɤn Cɨv ½Iɮxi ɤn{f +ɱ +i, iS Mɱ ½Iɮɺ =SSɮɨv vCE ɺi ˴f xɽ, BE ɽk´S |ɪ&; +ɽ iɺƤvx + Mi i E, Mtɨv |iE ɤn Mɳ =SSɮ ʱʽ Vi +ɱɨֳ, hV Mtɨv ɤnS ƪM i xɺɱɨֳ, hV Mtɨv ɤnS ƪM i xɺɱɨֳ n vCE ɺi xɽ {ɮi Eʴii Eƽ xɮɳ |Eɮ +ɽ

[ B ] Eʴiv ½Iɮxi ɤn{f ƪHIɮn ƺEi ɤn +ɱ +i iS Mұ ½Iɮɺ ɽv vCE ɺi, iɪM i ½ɺ Mְi i, +h iS nx j vɮhi ii {ɮi ƪHIɮn ɤn xɴɳ ɮ` +ɱɺ iS vCE Mұ

½ɺ ɺi xɽ, hV iɺ Mְi i xɽ iS BES j vɮii

=nɽh &-

V ʴ| +V{ɺx t|ɶx Eұ i {{

ɨP&;ɺɨ xζSi +f ɪn ɪ Eʴ l{ 1

Gi Mʽɮұ xh in֮&lɱʺ + iS

Ehɱ x |ɪ i MhɨhɨɪEʱʨxn iS 2

{ h ɱ n {ʮ ix =r x ɱE

ɪ +{ {ʮ +xɱ{-Yx hɴ +ʽ ɱ E 3

x SES ʴ SEi iʮ =i x ɴɪʺ Eɨɮh

EʮiS ҹ i M i vɨ ɪi E ɮh 4 {i [63]

ɮұ =nɽhiұ Eʴ l{, x |ɪ, ʨxn iS `Eh l{, |ɪ, iS ɤn ƺEi +ɽi +h iiұ +t ƪHIɮS Mɱ ʴ, x, ½Iɮƴɮ +Pi i +ɽ; iɺS { h, Yx hɴ, x ɴɪʺ, M i `Eh h, hɴ, ɴɪʺ, i ɤn xɴɳ ɮ` +ɽi +h iiұ +t ƪHIɮS Mɱ {, x, x, M ½Iɮƴɮ +Pi i xɽ =P[ +ɽ

+{ɴn &- ƪHIɮn ɤn ƺEi +xɽ Ev Ev Mұ ½Iɮɴɮ +Pi i xɽ hxS ɮұ xɪɨi ɽv ɤn Piɱ +ɽ =nɽh &-

+f|ɪ {ʮ {l + H iʽ nֱɦ {ɹ]

ɽ ֱ |ɪƴn i, fʴi SEʴi x i E] {i

+ɪiұ ֱɦ |ɪƴn `Eh |ɪƴn ƪHIɮn ɤn ƺEi +xɽ iS, ֱɦ ɤniұ -ɮ +Pi i xɽ Vɮ i +Pi P>x +ɪ ] iɮ - Mְi >x iS nx j iұ iɨֳ +ɪS iɺª Sɮhi BE j Vұ >x UxnM <DZ BS, ɮұ xɪɨ Eɳ ɨxE{ +ɽ +S |Eɮ Eƽ `Eh Mtiұ ɨɺi +fi S `E =nɽh ] hV Yx|Eɶ iǨx{jɺƤvx ix vɮh{h |-S x-ɮ +Pi x PiS Yx|Eɶ xƴ =SSɮhS VE[ iE[ ɮS |Pi ni il{ +{ɴnE |Eɮ Mh +x +xEhҪ xɽ