Resource Center For Indian Language Technology Solutions

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hxnǶ

13 ɮ` hǨɱi BEn 48 h +ɽi i +&-

+, +, <, <, =, >, @, =, B, B, +, +, +, +&; E, J, M, P, R, S, U, V, Z, ], `, [, f, h, i, l, n, v, x, {, , , , , , , , , , , ,

(+ ) h ix i½x ʱʽii&- , , {ʽ nx i½ ij{h ɮJS |Sɮi +ɽi ]S i½ , S, ; CSi ֦, C

h|Eɮ

14 h ix |EɮS +ɽi&- ɮ, ɮn, +h ɮxi ˴f Vx

]{- ƺEi Ehi ɮƺ +S +h Vxƺ + {ʮʹE Y +ɽi

15 V hS =SSɮ ij{h hV nֺª hS ɽɪɴSx i, iƺ ɮ + hii ɮ 12 +ɽi i&- +, +, <, <, =, >, @, =, B, B, +, +

16 V hS =SSɮ ij{h hV nֺª hS - ɮS - ɽɪɴSx i xɽ, iƺ {ɮh + hii i 36 +ɽi hǨɱv ɮS xiɮ hɮ +-{ɺx -+J ɴ h {ɮh i

]{- {ɮhȨv ɮ ʨɳɱ hV iS =SSɮ i; B i xɽ hxS {ɮh + ɮx H + hǨɱv =SSɮhS (9) ʱʽhS x佨S {ʮ{` +ɽ +i {ɮhi V ɮ ʨɳi, i BE iɮ +ɮƦ, xɽ iɮ +i ˤn +h ʴɺM hx V {ɮh +ɽ, iS +ɮƦ ɮ +ɱ iɮS iS =SSɮ i; hx ˤn +h ʴɺM + + = +, +h + + & = +& + ʱʽii +h ES {ɮhȨv ɮ +i ʨɳi hx i C + + = E, J + + = J, <0 + ʱʽii

17 {ɮh nx |EɮS +ɽi&- ɮn +h ɮxi

( + ) ɮ VS +ɮƦ ɴ Mii i ɮn h i i nx +ɽi& ˤn (+) +h ʴɺM (+&)

( + ) ɮ VS +i ɴ Mii i ɮxi h i Vx Vx hx Vƺ hhS {ʮ{` +ɽ i S i ɮxi h ˴f Vx, hVS , 34 +ɽi E-{ɺx {fұ ɴ

]{ - |ɨh hǨɱi +ɮƦ n 48 h +ɽi ɮ 12 +h {ɮ 36; +h 36 {ɮ{E ɮn h 2 +h ɮxi h hV Vx 34 +ɽi

VxS Jx

18 VxS {f ɮ +ɱ hV iS x] =SSɮ i; B =SSɮS o]x i Eɳ M[ i hx xɴɳ VxS =J EɴɪS +i i {ɪɨ[E ʱʽhS |Sɮ +ɽ Vɺ&- C, J, M, P <0 iS +{ɹ] =SSɮ nJʴhɺ` iS JɱS Vں =Vɴ VE[ ZEi Vɮɺ iɮE ] ( ) Efii, iɺ {ɪ [h + hii

( + )ɮ +v +ɱ +i VxS =SSɮɺ ni i xɽ =P[ +ɽ +C, hx VxS =SSɮ {ɹ] hɺ` ɮ iS +i hV {f >xS ii ʨɳɱ {ʽV xδǴn +ɽ (10)

( + ) ֱƺ hǨɱ ʶEʴix VxS =SSɮ {ɹ]{h Eʮi hɺ` i x佨 +Eɮxi MhS i =SSɮɺ vɰx {ɪ x [i ʱʽhS Sɱ +ɽ Vɺ &- E, J, M, P <0

ʱ{ & n xMɮ, [

19 hǨɱ ʱʽhS V {ri +ɮƦ n +ɽ, i {riҺ nxMɮ ʱ{ + hii nxMɮSS I{x xֺi xMɮ + { Zɱ

]{- ʱ{Һ nxMɮ xƴ ʨɳhS Eɮh + ni E, ˽nֺlxiұ ڳS M[, ʦɱ <0 ViS ES xx ɮҮ x, +lɴ Ei Yx M]i +ɪ E +fvE +fvE iV&{V {[ɨֳ iƺ n ( n - |Eɶh- ƺEi vi{ɺx n ɤn xPɱ +ɽ, ) +xlE xƴ ʨɳɱ iS ɺiɺlxɺ OɨS =] xMɮ hhi +ɱ i䴽 +liS nxMɮҨv ={ɪMi hɮ i nxMɮ + xƴS ={{k +ɽ

20 Vɱn ʱʽix hǨɱiұ h [x hV Eƽ +ƶ ֮[x ˴f Vɮɺ [E[ ʱʽhi > Mɱ ɨֳ [x Vɱn ʱʽhS {riҺ [ l xƴ +ɽ [ ʱ{ Shɺ E`h +ɽ; +h ʴɶEx +xɦɺi ɱƺ iɮ i ɮS n֤xv +ɽ

){ - [ ʱ{S =i{kҺƤvx +t{ n +ɽ {ɮi Eho] i ɽk´S xɺɱɨֳ ii {[hS l +ɴɶEi xɽ

21 h x [i ʱʽhS {ri [S xx ɱƺ ɮS ֤v +ɽ, hx iɱ ɱɤv + hii

[ + ] OlɱJxS U{hS Eɨ ɽv ɱɤv {SS ={ɪM Eʮii +h ɴɽɮi hV {j, VɨJS, +V, J hxS hǨɱS [ ɰ{ Ehɴɮұ {ֺiEi nhS Vɰ xɽ [11]

hS +f

22 hǨɱiұ hȺƤvx Eƽ M] vxi `hɺɮJ +ɽi i&-

[ + ] Eƽ h Eɳ iiɨ ƺEi ɤniS +fii i + &- @, =, R, \ =nɽh&- @i, @ʹ, o, E{, C={i, C={i, Rɪ, {ɮR¨J, x\-ii{ְ <0 {E \ +xG nx BE ɤniS ɽv o]Һ {[ii + ] iɮ Sɱ

[ + ] xɴɳ ɮ` ɤni CSi i iɮ i Eɳ ƺEi ɮ`iS ni + xɽ; iɮ +x ɹix +ɱ䱪 ɤniɽ +fi iֹɮ, i ƺEi ɤn|ɨh ֹɮ, Jֹ <0 ɴx ɤniɽ ni ɴɹh, M] BEɹ], ɺɹ], Jɹ], =] + Eƽ ƺEin¦ɴ ɤniɽ i i; xɽ + xɽ

[ < ] B +h + ɮ B + S VM +<, + +h +>, + + +xG ʴE{x ʱʽhS l[Ҷ Sɱ +ɽ Vɺ&- Sx/S, Sl/S>l, E/ɴE, Siɳh/Sɴiɳh <0 {ɮi ʶɹ] ɮ`S E SɱS =] ni hV BEɮH +EɮH {E[S iS ʴɶ E nx i, +h i VxS iɱ l i +ɽ Eʴii j Unx֮vx ] i { > Ei

JS n ʴvx B +h + ɮ ɮ`i E ii + JS hh +ɽ {ɮi ii +l ni xɽ Eɮh E Ehiɽ ɮ` {ֺiES Ehiɽ {xE[ I n iɮ ii BE jS +xE +Iɮ o]Һ {[ɴSx ɽhɮ xɽi {[i, E, , +, P[, iS, B, BEh, Bf, Vi, +, E, +E, +Z, +f, ƺɮJ E[ ɤn SES o]Һɨ i䴽S = ɽiұ +i B +h + ɮ ɮ` ɤni E ii JS hhS +l + E ɮ +ɮƦ [12] +ɱ ɤn ɮ`i Ei, + Vɮ Eh h iɮ i hh Eƽ +ƶ Jɮ +ɽ i ƶɪ xɽ il{ + +{֮ ʴvx ɺjҪ Oli Eh Evӽ Iɨ xɽ ʶɴɪ vi + +fx +ɱɴSx ɽhɮ xɽ E, <, <, >, @ ɮ +ɮƦ Vi +ɽi + ɤn B +h + x +ɮƦ hª ɤn{Iƽ E +ɽi iɮ M <, <, >, @ S nS =J x Eʮi B + ɮ ɮ` ɤni CSi ii + ʴvx Eh Eɳ ɨE

[ < ] +, +, = ɮ`i ɤnɮƦ {ֹE ii ES ɮ iS xx ɤnɮƦ E ii, +h iiɽ @ ɮS E +fi, =x +ɮƦS ɤnS xɽ

[ = ] iS|ɨh R, \, h, Vx ɤnɮƦ EvS i xɽi

[ > ] ˤn +h ʴɺM nxS hS xƴ Mɳ =SSɮ Mɳ; E ɴ hS xƴ =SSɮ BES +ɽi

hǺJʴSɮ

+i hǨɱiұ ɮ +h Vx S JS ʴSɮ E ɮ Vx Ei Ehi |ɪ&; ɮ`i l[ɺ nOɺi +ɽ; +h iS ɮ n xhǪɽ Eƽ +ƶ xɴxS +ɽ hx n Eɪ +ɽ +h l n xhǪS E Eɮ {ʽV Vɮɺ ʴɺiɮS Miɱ {ʽV >{ +liS ɽx ʴtmªƺ` xɺɱɨֳ iɨv +i{ɪi {ɹ] x Zɱ䱪 Ehiұ M]S Ƥv hɺ Ei xɽ

ɽx ֱƺ hǨɱ ʶEʴix ɮ Vx UkҺ ʶEʴhi ii {ɮi J xɮxɮɳ Eh xɮxɮɳ xii i䴽 iS hh Eɪ +ɽ i |lɨ {ʽ {ʽV

nP = |lɨ ɮ P> +, +, <, <, =, >, @, @=, =, =, B, B, +, +, +, +& + ɮ +ɽi, + ֱƺ ]i ɮʱEi = ( nP ) E`x, E Ev ʶɮ S Mf +ɽ Eɮh ƺEi Ehi + ɡ Mhi +ɱ +ɽ E = ɮɺ nPi xɽ hV ƺEi ɹi nP = ɮ xɽS; +h ʶɴɪ ɮ`iɽ i E` ni xɽ i䴽 Eɳ +, <, =, @ S nP ɮ +, <, >, @ nhS +Pi +Yx{hx nP = -Sɽ +iɮ |E] Zɱ +ɴ + ]i i Eƽ +, nP = ɺ ֳ ƺEii ɮ`iɽ +fiiS xɽ =P[ +ɽ [13]

+ +h +& +, +& ɮ xɺx ˤn ʴɺM nδhɺ` +-S +ɮƦ +vɮ P>x +fiii +ɱ +ɽi, =P[ +ɽ +, +& S Vɮ ɮi ij{h Mhx E iɮ <, <&, =, =& <0 +hJ +xE ɮ xɴ Miұ hx +, +& S Mhx ɮi ij{h Ehҽ Ei xɽ MS +ɽ iɮ M ˤn +h ʴɺM Eɪ +ɽi? |ɪ&; ɮJS ʴSɮ {h Zɱɴɮ i P> v ɮƶ ; +h +, +&, hV ˤn ʴɺM, ɮ xɴi i䴽 ƨvx ix M hV E ʽ i hx iS ɮ ɮ`i xh M + +E[ұ ɮ` EhS i +ɽ

nP @ {ɮi I vxi + ni E nP @ ɮr ɮ`i xhS Vɰ xɽ ½ -r xɴɳ ɮ` ɤni o]Һ {[i xɽ iɮ ƺEiix ɮ`Ҩv V ɤn VɺS iɺ, hV ii Eƽ BE 䮤n x i, +ɱ +ɽi, +h Vƺ iiɨ + Y +ɽ, i iiɨ ɤni i ni +h =n, x=i, E{ <0 iiɨ ɤn ɮ`i |Sɮi +ɽi, i䴽 ½ -S Mhx ɮ` ɮi ES {ʽV {ɮi nP @ ƺEiɨv ES i +h ɮ`i iɮ nS xɽ C={i C={i + BE nx ɤniS V|ɨh = ɮ ɮ`i ni, i|ɨh nP @ Vɮ xnx BE iiɨ |Sɮiұ ɤni o]Һ {[i iɮ i ɮ`i Eɮɴ Mi +E BE ɮ ˴f Vx +E ɹi +ɽ E xɽ |ɪ&;S xEɱ Eʮix, i h Vɮ BES ɤni ɺ Ei +ɱ iɮ iS hǨɱi +xiɦǴ ZɱS {ʽV =P[ +ɽ {ɮi nP @ ڳ ɮ`, ˴f iiɨ |Sɮiұ ɮ`, ˴f in¦ɴ ɮ`, hV Ehiɽ BE ɤni i xɺɱɨֳ iS ɮ` ɮʱEi E Mhx ɴ +ɨƺ ɨVi xɽ {i= + h = { h, =nɽh {ɽx nP @ ɮS ɮ`i ɨɴ E {ʽV + ]hS Ʀɴ +ɽ {h {ih v ƺEiiɽ E{E +ɽ; hV {i= h + vɮʽi { ƺEii Sɱi i䴽 i ɮ`iɽ Sɱhɺ Ei xɽ +h ʶɴɪ {ih nP- EɮH { ɮ` Oli E` +ɱS {֮ɴ +t{ {f +ɱ xɽ +h Vɮ {ih + nP-@EɮH { ` |ɪɺx vxi E` +f iɮ i |Sʱi ɮ`i Jɺ xɽ i ɮ iɮ |Sʱi ɮ` Ehɴɮұ {ֺiEi v|E[14]hS +fi hx nP @ ɺr ɮ`i xɽS + ] {ʽV

BS nP =, nP @, +h +, +& Sɮ V Ex ES ɮ ɮ ɮ`i +ɽi +h iS Vxɺ ɴx ɮJ[ iɪɮ Eɴ hV ˤn ʴɺM Mɳx = +fvE Pɴ ɮJ[ ʱɽɴ Vɺ&- E, E, E, E, E, E, E, C=, E, E, E, E

ƪH ɮS ɨlx l Eh + +I{ P<DZ E Vɮ nP ɮ ڳ xɴi, +h Vɮ B, B, +, + ɮ ڳ xɺx ƪH +ɽi, iɮ ɴ Mɳ {ʽVi +h +, <, =, , =, {SS ڳ ɮ xɱ {ʽVi +I{ ɺiʴE i +ɽ +, <, =, , =, {SS ڳ ɮ +ɽi; +h +, <, > ix nP, B, B, +, + Sɮ ƪH + ES ɴ iɽ ɮ ڳ ɮ{ɺxS =i{z Zɱ +ɽi +Iɮ& Jɮ +ɽ il{ B, B, +, + V ɮS ƪM +ɽi, iV{ɺx iS =SSɮ ʦz +ɽ; hV iS =SSɮi +ɪɴS =SSɮ {ɹ] xɽ, +lɴ iS =SSɮi +ɪɴS Mɨں Mi xɽ, iS =SSɮɴɰx i +E +E ɮ{ɺx Zɱ + Mi i xɽ BE, +h =SSɮʦziɺ +xֺɰx i ʱʽhS i½ɽ ʦz +ɽ nֺɮ nx EɮhEʮi iƺ ɮʱEi Mʴɱ +ɽ

B +h + `Eh + Mhi hS Ʀɴ +ɽ E, B ( + + <, < ) +h + ( + + =, > ) Vɮ +xSSʮiɴɪɴ +ɱ iɮ B +h + =SSʮiɴɪɴS +ɽi hx ɮұ ik´ƺ +xֺɰx B +h + nS iɮ ɮɱi +xiɦǴ ɴɪɺ xE ES ɨvx B = + + B = + + ( + + <, < ) = + + <, <; +h + = + + + = + + ( + + =, > ) = + + =, >; - ix n ɨEh ɴǺ O +ɽi + Vɮ xɱ iɮ B +h + S =SSʮiɴɪɴi ʺr i xɽ i xɽS B S +< + S += + =SSɮ i + |ɺii JEɺ ]i xɽ iS =SSɮ +xG +< += SɺɮJ Eƽ +ƶ i {ɮi + + < = B +h + + = = + + vo] ɺiʴE ɨEh +ɽi {h vo] ɺiʴE ɨEh B + S =SSɮƶ Vɨi xɽi; +h B + S =SSɮiұ ɨEh ( B = +<, + = += ) vo] ɺiʴE hV ɮɤɮ xɽi, hV i ɺiκliҶ Vɨi xɽi =P[ +ɽ ɨֳ B, B, +, + ɮJS +xSSʮiɴɪɴ +ɽi, +h hxS [15] Sɮ ƪH ɮƺ ɮʱEi Mʡ +ɽ

nP ɮS ɨlx |ɨh ڳ {S ɮ{ɺx =i{z Zɱ B, B, +, + Sɮ ƪH ɮ BEn ɮɱi Piɱ hV +, <, > ix nP ɮƺɽ iSɤɮɮ Mơh <]S ]i Eɮh E, ƪH ɮ Vɺ ڳ xɺx ini{z i, iS|ɨh nP ɮ ini{z i +i nPS =SSɮ ½ƽx ɴl ʦz xɽ Jɮ; il{ ix nPS Eɮ E hV ڳ ini{z ɴ ɮ {ii hx ɮɱ {hi +hhɺ` ƪH ɮSɤɮɤɮ nP ɮSɽ +iɦǴ ɮɱi Eh <] ]ɨֳ ɮ`Ҩv BEn ɮJ ɮ xɱ +ɽ

ˤn +h ʴɺM & JS i l ɮJS |ɪ&; {ɱ +i ˤn ʴɺM S ɰ{E[ ɳ |lɨ +E[ұ i {ɽ +xֺɮ +h ʴɺM VxS ni +ɨ +fvE Piɱ +ɽi {ɹ] =SSɮEʮi i nPƺɽ ɮS ni Mi ʶɴɪ, +xxʺE Vx, +h , <0 SS i +xG {iɮ +ɽi |ɨh +xֺɮ BE +xxʺE +h ʴɺM BE +vǺɮ +ɽ + xɱ +i Sɱ ɺiʴE ] +i i Vxɶ BE{ +ɽi +S xɱ {ʽV {ɮi V +l iS +Eɮ +h =SSɮ Eƽ +ƶ ʦz +ɽ, i +l iƺ ij Vx xhS ɱ M ni JS ɨv +xֺɮ ɤn x佨S |Sɮɺ +xֺɰx ix {ʮ +ɽ {ɮi vɮ{h Vɺ +xֺɮ hii iS xɮxɮɳ V =SSɮ +ɽi i{E H BEɺS Ehɶɺji +xֺɮ Y +ɽ, {fұ BE +vɪi ʴɺiɮ <DZS hx ɺjҪ o]x Sɺ +xֺɮ + x hi ˤn + hh ɮ

JS iS {ɮɨɶɮ & VxS Ih ? ˤn ʴɺM S J ɮƨv +xiɦǴ Ei xɽi, iS ˤn +h ʴɺM ƺ {ɹ] =SSɮEʮi ɮS ni Mi xδǴn +ɽ {ɮi ˤn ʴɺM ɺ +h Vxƺ, l vxi i +ɱ VxS Ih BES +lx M {[i xɽ Eɮh E, ˤn ʴɺM S {ɹ] =SSɮ hEʮi V ɮ iS niҺ PɴɪS i iS +ɮƦ ɴ Mi, +h VxS i +i ɴ Mi ɨֳS + ( + + ), +& ( + + & ), +h E ( C + + ), J ( J + + ), M, P <0 |Sɮ {[ +ɽ Vx |Sɮ {b iƺ I n SMɱS ʽi +ɱ {ʽV +h JS Vɮ i o]Һ {[ +ɽ iɮ [16] iS {ɹ] ɰ{ +h iƺ {h{h ɨVɱ +ɴ + ni xɽ xɽ iɮ ɴ Vx Vx +Eɮxi ʱʽ +h Vɺ ˤn ʴɺM +Eɮxi ʱʽhS {Sɮ nJʴɱ|ɨh +xֺɮ +h ʴɺM Vɮ VxS ɦɴS nii iɮ iS BE ʴɶ +ɽ Vx ɮS +v ˴f xiɮ > Eii, {ɮi +xֺɮ +h ʴɺM nni ɮS xiɮ ii + J BE ]{i hii {ɮi ɴɰx Vɮ, ˤn ʴɺM +h Vx ƨvұ E iS Ii +ɱ i + ni iɮ iS +JS xhǪɴɰx iƺ iS {h ɽk´ ˴f ll{h E xɴi +S hɴ Mi Vx ɮS xiɮ > Ei Jɮ, il{ i{ɺx VxS =SSɮɺ ni i Eɪ ? C + + = E, l ɮ VxS {f >x i ii ʨɳx M +ɽ, ʱ{Ҵɰx =SSɮɴɰxɽ ni {ɮi + + C = +C, `Eh Vx Vɮ ɮS xiɮ +ɱ +ɽ, iɮ iS BE VҴ i xɽ ʱ{ =SSɮ nɰx iiES {ɹ] +ɽ hV +v +ɱ䱪 +-S E VxS =SSɮɺ EƽS ni i xɽ, Ehʽ Eڱ Eұ +i ˤn ʴɺM S{f BES ɤni ɮ i xɽ Jɮ, iɮ + +i, |ɪ& + =nɽhiɱ|ɨh i ɤnS +i +i iS{f ɮn ɤn hV ɮ i =P[ +ɽ {h + +ɱ iɮ iS BE VҴ i xɽ +ɨƺ x +ɽ il{ VxS ɤiiɽ +S |Eɮ ni {=lC, {ɶSi BE ɤniS ɮS xiɮ Vx +ɱ +ɽ; {h i ɮS iS{f +ɱ䱪 VxS ɮ Miɱ|ɨh ʱ{ ˴f =SSɮ BEɨv BE VҴ i xɽ, iɮ i Eɳ +M ii iS|ɨh ˤn ʴɺM ɮS{ڴ +M ii {ɮi V|ɨh {f ɮ +ɱ +i Mұ VxS iS BE VҴ i + ɮ Miɱ, iS|ɨh M ɮ +ɱ +i {fұ ˤn ʴɺM S BE VҴ i +, +& ʱ{Ҵɰx =SSɮɴɰxɽ {ɹ]S +ɽ ii{ɪ VxS {f M ɮ > Ei, {h ˤn ʴɺM S H MS i ʴvxS {ɹ]Ehɺ` {fұ Sɮ lɳS I ʴSɮ E {ʽV [17]

1 C + + = E 2 + + C = +C

3 + + = +; & + + = &+ 4 + + =+, + + & = +&

Vɮ +C hV ɮS {f Vx h C +ɽ ( =n0&- {=lE ) iɮ +, & + +C xɽ ( =n0&- + +i, |ɪ& + ) +C BE ɤni ʨɳi {ɮi +, & + BE ɤni ʨɳi xɽi, Vɮ J x i& Miɱ xɽ iɮ iS iɺS +ɶɪ +ɱ {ʽV +ɨƺ x +ɽ il{ 2 +h 3 ƨvұ E =SSɮS ʱ{S nx o]x ={IhҪS Eɮh E ˤn ʴɺM +h {fұ ɮ (3) Vɶ E` BE VҴ x i ʦz ʦzS ɽii, hV iS =SSɮɺ {fұ ɮS ni i xɽ iS|ɨh {ڴS ɮ xiɮS Vx (2) ʦz ʦzS ɽx {fұ VxS =SSɮɺ Mұ ɮS ni {Si xɽ, =P[ +ɽ BS ˤn ʴɺM +h Vx ƨvұ V E Jx ]{i Miɱ +ɽ i BE iɮ ɴǺ Jɮ xɽ, xɽ iɮ xnx xɰ{ɪM

{ɮ{ʮE VxɱIhS SEi iɮ M ˤn ʴɺM ƺ Vx hhS ɺi +ɶ xɽ Eɪ? SE , ɺjҪ ʴSɮi iɮ =iɴɳ{h <] xɽ M䱪 CɺɨSSɪi xɨn E䱪 Sɮ lɳ{E 2 +h 3 S Vɮ iɶ ɺɱn Mɱ iɮ 1 +h 4 ɴǺ BE xɽi =SSɮ hɺ` Vƺ ɮS ni Mi iƺ Vx hii + V䴽 VxS ( Eó hS ) Ih Ehi i i䴽 i Ihi VxS {f ɮS ni + +l +vɾi xɽ Eɪ? iɮ S Ih ˤn ʴɺM ƺ +Iɮ& M {[i Eɪ? +lɴ VxS S +lx ˤn ʴɺM ƺ Vx hi <DZ Eɪ?

{h i֨S {ʽ |ɪ&;S + V +ɨ =kɮ n i nڮɮ ʴSɮ Ex n xɽ i䴽 i =kɮ {ɮi P>x +ɨ + hi E VxS {f ɮS ni ɤn VxS Ji +vɾi x ɨVi ˤn ʴɺM ƺ VxS Ih ʴi <DZ =SSɮɺ` ni, M i ɮS {f hx ˴f M hx , BES i䴽 VxS V {ʽ Ih +ɽ i iɺS E<Ǩ `ɴ hV Zɱ +h +i iɮ i֨S Ii [18] {ɱ E xɽ? SE , {x iS ɺjҪ ʴɹɪi [E i `ʴɱ {ʽV iɺ E䱪x {fұ ʴɴSx ɨVx Phɺ ɮ { V<DZ Z n Jƶ xɽ iS xƴS =Jɽ Ehɮ xɴi {ɮi +VEɱ iS EhS |ɺɮ Sɱɱ +ɽ +h iS VS hh x] [hi +ɱ +ɽ E xɽ SEƺ i& {ɽhɺ ʨɳɴ hx iS EhS =J Ex ɤnS ɮ` {iɮ nh ɱ M nɱ, B lұ n Eɳ ɺjҪ +ɽ i䴽 ɺjҪ o]x |ɪ&;S Eɪ xEɱ Mi i {ɽ

ɺjS EiǴ {ڴ V䴽 ˤn ʴɺM x hǨɱix ɡ Mɳi +i, i S VxS +{ɹ]{h E J P>x iS ˤn ʴɺM x +v{h ɴh x] xɽ; Eɮh E, i Vɮ {ɹ] E hV ii V +vɽɮ +ɽ i {h H E iɮ i ˤn ʴɺM ƺ MS i xɽ i Vɶ +{ɹ] +ɽ iɶS +{ɹ] `x ˤn ʴɺM ƺɽ i [䳺{h hV Y{h ɴh Eƽ ɺjҪ o] ɴl ɴM xɽ iɮ + Ehi ɽVE{h Eɪ i +ɽ iE[ +{ɱ [ZE i Eɨ xɪ Vx ɤnS +{ɱ xi +ɱ x佨S +l fx l iS +{h i{I +fvE {E +lx ={ɪM Ei +ɽ ʴɺɮi Eɨ xɪ iɺ Ehɺ |SɮS +[E` EnSi +, {h ɺjS xɽ il{ |Sɮiұ ɤnƺ +fvE {Ei nhS iɺ Eh ʴɴIi lɳ Ei{i M +ɽ Sɽ ɺjx I{h {h ʴSɮ E {ʽV i䴽, x佨{I +fvE {E +lx Vx ɤnS ={ɪM Ex ˤn ʴɺM S Mhx Vxi E iɮ x佨S ɪni +lx ] Vhɮ ( Eó ), +h {E +lx ] Vhɮ Vx ( ˤn ʴɺM ) ƨvұ E {ɹ] ES {ʽV xɽ iɮ x Vh EnSi ɱiS {ʮhɨ P[ɴɪS hxS +ɨ ˤn ʴɺM ƺ ɮn hV ɮ +n +ɽ Vɨv i; +h E-{ɺx -{ɪiS hȺ ɮxi hV ɮ +i i VS i hVS h, ˴f x佨S +lx Vx + ] +ɽ; +h Vx ɤnS ={ɪM ɪni hV x佨SS +lx, ˤn ʴɺM ƺ VxS ɪnS ɽS `x, EhS Vɱ +ɽ VxS <]i +hJ {fұ ʴɴSxɴɰx SEƺ {]ɴSx ɽhɮ xɽ

ˤn-ʴɺMS VxiS +x Eɮh & SEi |lɨ ˤn ʴɺM S VxiS +xiɦǴ EhS V +hJ Eɮh nhi ii iS ʴSɮ E ʶɴɪ +xxʺE Vx +h , <0 SS i ( ˤn ʴɺM ) +xG {iɮ +ɽi |ɨh +xֺɮ ( ˤn ) BE +xxʺE +h ʴɺM BE +vǺɮ +ɽ [19] + xɱ iɮ Sɱ ɺiʴE ] +i i Vxƶ BE{ +ɽi +S xɱ {ʽV ɴɰxɽ ˤn ʴɺM ɮn +ɽi Vx ɮxi +ɽi iƨvұ E JS Ii {h{h ɺi xɴi ˴f i iS i +Mn ={IhҪS i + `i xɽ Eɪ? ˤn +h +xxʺE Vx Vɮ ɺiʴE ] +i BE{ i hV iS ini +ɽ, iɮ +xxʺE Vxi ˤnڨv Eƽ BE E +i Eɨ xɪ {ɮi R, \, h, x, ɮxi +ɽi; +h ˤn ɮn +ɽ {h q Vɮ Vں `ʴɱ, iɮ ɮұ ʴvx{ɺx Eɪ Eɪ P]ɳ, +[Sh +fxɹ] |Eɮ =i{z ii i {ɽ +xxʺE ˤn Vɮ BES, iɮ ] i `Eh iS +nɤn Zɱ {ʽV {ɮi R¨ɪ, x\ii{ְ, =hɪ, vxiʮ, ɩ], +h EӴ, , Eɳ, >ƺ, +ƺ, Eh, Mɽ, , Mְ, iɳ <0 ɤniұ +xxʺE hS ˤnS +nɤn Ehɺ Eh ɨVɺ xֹ [ `x vV + ]i xɽ ʶɴɪ ˤn +xxʺE Vx S +h ʴɺM , <0 S Vɮ ɺiʴE ] +i ini +i iɮ {hx ɮJ ƺEi ɮhɺ +xֺɮ EhEhi lɳ i, +h ʴɺMS ˴f E` i, ˴f =] , S ʴɺM E` i ɺƤvS ʴɺi=i xɪɨ nhS xɺi =`` EhS Eɪ Vɰ i, +ɨƺ iɮ ɨVi xɽ; +h V +l ix =`` E +ɽ i +l ˤn +xxʺE Vx, +h ʴɺM , S ini xɽ,

ʱi |ɨh ini {iɮ {E EhiS i ɺjɺƨi xɽ, hx ˤn ʴɺM ƺ ij VxS hh ɮ + ]hS Ʀɴ +ɽ J r +JҺ hii E, {ɮi V +l iS +Eɮ =SSɮ Eƽ +ƶ ʦz +ɽ i +l iƺ ij Vx xhS ɱ M ni ʴvxiұ {ڴ Jɮ +ɽ; iɮ iiұ =kɮ j O `i xɽ; hV ˤn ʴɺM S +xxʺE Vx , , {ɺx +Eɮ =SSɮ ªS +ƶ ʦz +ɽ =P[ +ɽ; hx i ij h [20] i i Eƽ BE ƶɪ xɽ +h iS =SSɮ ɮS niҴSx i xɽ hx i ɮ xɴi i䴽 iS ɮiɮ hiS +xiɦǴ Zɱ {ʽV =P[ +ɽ ɮiɮ hȺ Vx + ʴɺi=i +lx hi <DZ il{ Vx ɤnS +l j `Eh x佨S +l{I +fvE {E +ɽ ʴɺɮi Eɨ xɪ hx ˤn ʴɺM ƺ ɮn h + ʦz

xƴ n>x hV E-{ɺx +J{ɪiS V ɮxi h iƺS x佨S +lx Vx hh ɮ M] ɮ ʴɺiɮ +ɱS +ɽi

ˤn -ʴɺMS Vxiʴɰr |ɨh il{ ˤn ʴɺM ƺ x佨S +lx Vx x ɨVhS +hJҽ Eƽ Eɮh nJʴi iұ Vɮ ˤn ʴɺM Vx i + xɱ iɮ ɮ`Ҩv xɴɳ ɮ` ɤn{EӺr +xE ɤn Vxxi xɴ Miұ Mɽ, , n, {Jɰ, iɳ, Pɳ, +, +i, Eɴ, E, E, E, |ɪ&, i& <0 Vxxi ɤnS ɮ`Ҩv +Mn ֳֳ] =[x V<DZ {h V {ɮi {ɺx {f +xE +iG1 +[Sh =i{z h ƦɴxҪ +ɽ v Vxxi hhɺ iɪɮ xɽ +h ɺj Vɮ Zɱ iɮ iɺ fҺ ɴǺ vɤɴɮ ɺʴi i xɽ; ɺjpfDZҪɺ xɪx ɺjɺ fSS M Eɮɴ Mi

ˤn ʴɺM ƺ Vx x ɨVhS +hJ BE ֪HE Eɮh nJɴx +vS ɮ Ƥɱ ʴɹɪ {֮ Eʮi nx ˴f +fvE Vx BEj +ɱx hV v ɮ x i BEɨMx BE + i +ɴʽi{h +ɱ +i ƪH Vx iɪɮ ii; {ɮi ˤn ʴɺM V{ɺx +{+{ɺi ˴f Ehiɽ Vxɤɮɤɮ BE ƪM xi xɽ C +h n{ɺx jf ˴f f ƪH Vx Vɶ iɪɮ ii iɶ C ˤn ˴f ʴɺM {ɺx Ehi ƪM i? + C, C + , & + C, C + & Sɮ lxS ƪM +ɨS iɮ E{xɶHS +]Ci xɽ, |Vɱ{h Eڱ Eʮi

xhǪ ɮƶ, ɴ ƤɱSE >{{ɺx S +JS xEɱ Mi E, ˤn ʴɺM S ɮi Mhx E xɪ xδǴn +ɽ +h Vɮ ˤnS =SSɮ Eƽ lɳ +xxʺE Vx|ɨh Zɱ, +h Eƽ lɳ Eƽ +xxʺE VxS ˤn Zɱ; iɺS Vɮ ʴɺMS [21] Eƽ lɳ , Zɱ, +h Eƽ lɳ , S ʴɺM Zɱ, iɮ ifɴɰx ˤn ʴɺM +xxʺE Vx , S {xiɮ{ɺx +xG =i{z Zɱ +ɽi ˴f iƨv ini +ɽ + hi ɴɪS xɽ iɺS S =SSɮ ɮS niʶɴɪ i xɽ +{ɹ] ɤii Vɮ iƨv Vxƨv vɩª ni +ɱ iɮ i vɩªS xx iƨv vɩªɽ ɮS +ɽ, i ɺjҪ o] ɽk´S +ɽ, ɨֳ iS Vxiɽ Mhx Eʮi i xɽ +h iS =SSɮ ʱ{ nx, J x Miɱ|ɨh, ɴ hS =SSɮɽx ʱ{ҽx xɮɳ {[ɨֳ iS hǨɱi ij{h ɮi Eh +ɶ +ɽ; Eʮi iƺ ɮn iɺɮS xƴ n>x Vx ɤn x佨SS ɪni +lx {ɮh SMɱ =P[ +ɽ BS, hS MEh ɮ Vx + Eh{I Jɱ n|ɨh Eh +fvE |ɶɺi +ɽ

h


ɮ ɮiɮ ( {ɮh )


ɮn ɮxi, Vx

+i +JҺ VxɺJE[ ɳ ƺEii H iiҺ Vx +ɽi xɮɳ Vx ƺEii xɽ i nɨv =SSɮi [-S VM i {ɮi ɮ`Ҩv [-S VM ˴f -S VM [ + (䮦n& [ S +n o]Һ {[i xɽ {[ S VM {ɳ, ˴f JɳM S VM J[M, + ]x +lǴ{ɪǺ ˴f +lǶxi =i{z i ʶɴɪ, Eɱ, , ɱ <0 ƺEi ɤn{ɺx Zɱ䱪 Eɳ, , ɳ ɮ` ɤni i il{ nx ij{h ɮ`i +ɱɨֳ ڳ ƺEi iiҺ Vxi SiɺɴS ɮ`i ɮ Pɱh |{i Zɱ +ɽ

I, Y & ƪH Vx I Y +hJ nx +Iɮ ֳIɮ ʶEʴix ֱƺ ʶEʴii iɺ Eh ֱS o]x Vɮ H +ɱ iɮ Eho] iS hǨɱi ij Mhx Eh x] xɽ Eɮh E i ƪH Vx i C xiɮ S ƪM{ɺx I i Vɺ I-S =SSɮɴɰx ɨVi iɺ Y-S |Sʱi =SSɮɴɰx ii V xiɮ \ Vx ƪH +ɽi + {ɹ] ɨVi xɽ, [22]iS ɺ i ɴɰx +ɨS, hV ɮ` i=ɹ hª ES, Y-S |Sʱi =SSɮ ڳ =SSɮ xɴ Jɺ ڳ =SSɮS VM xɴx ɱiS =SSɮ Ev E ְ Zɱ; iɺS ˽n, Mɱ, MVɮi, Ex[ M ɹ hɮ E iS V +hJ VɮVɮ xɮɳ =SSɮ Eʮii iSҽ =i{k Ev E Zɱ iS l +h Vɮ i ʱʽhS |Sʱi ɰ{ɴɰx iiұ +ɪɴ Eɪ {ɹ] ɨVi xɽ, iɮ iS ڳ Vxƨv +xiɦǴ i xɽ xɽ iɮ H j ƺɮJ nֺªɽ Eƽ ƪH VxS hǨɱi Mhx Eɴ M

ƪH Vx +h ƪH ɮ `Eh + +I{ hS Ʀɴ +ɽ E, Vɮ B, B, +, + ƪH ɮS hǨɱi Mhx Zɱ +ɽ iɮ I Y ƪH VxS hǨɱi Mhx Ehɺ Eɪ Ei +ɽ? |ɪ&;S =kɮ iɺ Eh hV hǨɱ l Ƥɴx +V[ Eh i{ɺx ɴɽʮE ˴f ɺjҪ EhiS ɪn xɽ H {H|{S ˴f ʴɺMi n ] {ɮi Eɳ MiҺS ʴɶ ɽk´ nh M xɴ =], ʴɺMi ]ɳhS |ɪixx Vɮ ʴxEh Mn P]ɳ i + iɮ MiҺS ] nh Eƽ M xɽ ʶɴɪ ƪH ɮS ƪH VxS M] Eɳ BES xɽ ɮ =SSɮS ɤii Vxƺ +vɮi +ɽi; Vx Eɳ M[ +ɽi hx {Mƺ BEn Ei |EɮS +vɮ ʨɳh C +ɽ +ɮƦ `ʴh <] +ɶ +ɽ iɶ VxS M] xɽ ڳ Vxƺ V +vɮ ʨɳi i ƪH Vxƺ ʨɳɴɪSS ɮJ[S o]x qS ɽk´ i䴽S ɨV BS, ڳ ini{z ɴ ɮS Mhx h ɴɽɮ ɺj nx o]x Vɺ <] +ɶ +ɽ iɺ ڱ ƪH nx VxS Mhi h Ehiɽ o]x +ɶ xɺɱɨֳ hǨɱv ƪH Vxƺ lɳ nhɺ EhS iɪɮ x ɴ ɽVE +ɽ [23]